Tin Pest

This web site is being maintained by John R. Barnes, who was the President and Chief Engineer of dBi Corporation from 2002 to September 30, 2013, when we closed because ObamaCrap made it too expensive for us to remain in business.

John R. Barnes KS4GL, PE, NCE, NCT, ESDC Eng, ESDC Tech, PSE, Master EMC Design Engineer, SM IEEE
February 5, 2021
jrbarnes@iglou.com

This bibliography now has references to 503 documents that I have collected on tin pest since 2004, including: with about 35 links to documents that as of September 2020 can be downloaded from the Internet for free.

As a follow-on to writing Robust Electronic Design Reference Book, Volumes I and II in 2003, in late 2004 I started seriously researching:

Fifteen years later, the 26,000+ documents that I have collected on these subjects take up half of my office and have overflowed into my living room, filling three bookcases and 10 file cabinets.

My Bibliography for Designing Lead-Free, RoHS-Compliant, and WEEE-Compliant Electronics contains all of the references to this mass of material. But at 6.9MB and 1,870+ pages length, the full Bibliography tends to choke many editors and some browsers.

A serious unintended consequence of the RoHS Directive-- mainly due to its ban on the use of lead in electronics-- has been a horrendous reduction in the quality, reliability, and longevity of electronic products produced since early 2006, versus equivalent tin/lead- based electronics that were manufactured from about 1950 through 2005. My gut feel from attending the Surface Mount Technology Association (SMTA) International Conference in October 2012 was that the out-of-box quality of lead-free electronics was finally approaching the quality we had for tin/lead-based electronics in 2005. But the reliability and longevity of lead-free electronics still suck in comparison to tin/lead-based electronics.

The much higher processing temperatures and poorer wetting of lead-free solders versus tin/lead- based solders have increased the number and severity of almost all of the kinds of manufacturing defects that we used to see in production. And all of the material changes forced on us by the RoHS Directive have made RoHS-compliant electronics susceptible to serious new failure modes:

One of the failure modes of electronics that has increased with the conversion from tin/lead-based solders/ platings to lead-free solders/ platings is called "tin pest", also known as "tin plague", "tin leprosy", "tin disease", or "tin blight". We usually think of tin as a silvery, ductle metal. This "white tin" or beta-tin has a tetragonal crystal structure. Below 13.2 degrees C (about 56 degrees Fahrenheit) tin can change to a brittle semiconductor, "grey tin", "gray tin", or alpha tin, with a cubic (diamond) crystal structure-- expanding about 27% in volume in the process, and usually turning to dust.


Books on Tin Pest (revised 10/28/2020)

Metals Handbook, 1939 Edition. Cleveland, OH: American Society for Metals, 1939. pp. 1714-1715.

Metals Handbook, 9th Edition, Volume 2: Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Pure Metals. Metals Park, OH: American Society for Metals, 1979. pp. 811-812.

The Lead Free Electronics Manhattan Project - Phase I. ACI Technologies, July 30, 2009.

The Mechanism of Phase Transformation in Metals. London: The Institute of Metals, 1956. pp. 87-92, 277, 291-292, 298-299.

The Properties of Tin. Greenford, Middlesex, England: Tin Research Institute, 1954. pp. 17-20, 24-25, 29-30, 36, 38-39, 50.

Soldering Manual. New York: American Welding Society, 1959. pp. 52.

Abbott, David, Inorganic Chemistry. London: Mills & Boon, 1965. pp. 390-391.

Addison, W. E., The Allotropy of the Elements. London: Oldbourne Press, 1964. pp. 23, 65, 93-96.

Aristotle (translated by Dowdall, L. D.), The Works of Aristotle Translated into English: de Mirabilibus Auscultationibus. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909. pp. 834 (chapter 50, page 27 of the .pdf file).

Avner, Sidney H., Introduction to Physical Metallurgy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964. pp. 395-396.

Barrett, C. S., and Massalski, T. B., Structure of Metals: Crystallographic Methods, Principles and Data . New York: Pergamon, 1980. pp. 230, 490.

Barrett, Charles S., Structure of Metals: Crystallographic Methods, Principles, and Data . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1943. pp. 199, 201, 436, 554.

Barry, B. T. K., and Thwaites, C. J., Tin and Its Alloys and Compounds. New York: Halsted Press, 1983. pp. 12-16.

Bradley, Edwin, Handwerker, Carol A., Bath, Jasbir, Parker, Richard D., and Gedney, Ronald W., Lead-Free Electronics: iNEMI Projects Lead to Successful Manufacturing . Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2007. ISBN 978-0-471-44887-7. $99.95 list price. pp. 18, 250-251.

Brick, R. M., and Phillips, Arthur, Structure and Property of Alloys. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1949. pp. 31.

Cahn, Robert W. and Haansen, Peter, Physical Metallurgy, 4th Edition, Volume 1. New York: Elsevier North Holland, 1996. ISBN 0444898751. pp. 12, 25, 35.

Christian, J. W., The Theory of Transformations in Metals and Alloys, New York: Pergamon Press, 1965. pp. 594-600.

Cohen, Ernst, Physico-Chemical Metamorphosis and Some Problems in Piezochemistry . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1928. pp. 23-34, 40-43, 87-88.

Coombs Jr., Clyde F., Printed Circuits Handbook, 6th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008. ISBN 0-07-146734-3. $135.00 list price. pp. 45.19.

Darken, Lawrence S., Gurry, Robert W., Physical Chemistry of Metals. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1953. pp. 53, 308.

Dehlinger, Ulrich, Chemische Physik der Metalle und Legierungen. Liepzig, Germany: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, 1939. pp. 8-12, 42, 128-129.

Dillard, Clyde R., and Goldberg, David E., Chemistry Reactions, Structure and Properties. New York: MacMillan, 1971. pp. 558-559.

Dunn, Barrie D., Materials and Processes for Spacecraft and High Reliability Applications . Chichester, United Kingdom: Springer, 2016. ISBN 978-3-319-79474-7. $154.26 list price. pp. 448-450.

Earnshaw, A., and Greenwood, Norman, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd Edition. Elsevier, 1997. pp. 371-372.

Emsley, John, Molecules at an Exhibition - Portraits of Intriguing Materials in Everyday Life, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0192862065. $17.95 list price. pp. 51-52.

Emsley, John, Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0198503407. $17.95 list price. pp. 450.

Forsythe, W. E., Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th Edition. Knovel, 1954. pp. 129, 291.

Ganesan, Sanka, and Pecht, Michael, Lead-free Electronics 2004 Edition. College Park, MD: CALCE EOSC Press, 2003. ISBN 0-9707174-7-4. $100 list price. pp. 233-234, 256.

Ganesan, Sanka, and Pecht, Michael. Lead-free Electronics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2006. ISBN 0-471-78617-9. $99.95 list price. pp. 25, 36, 139, 181-184, 219, 507-508, 518, 545.

Gilman, J. J., The Art and Science of Growing Crystals. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1963. pp. 177-179, 331-332.

Groen, Luiken Jan, Kinetiek van de Allotrope Omzetting in Tin. Thesis for echeikundig ingenieur, Delft. Oct. 31, 1956.

Hampel, Clifford A., The Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements. New York: Reinhold, 1968. pp. 722, 727.

Hedges, Ernest S., Tin and Its Alloys. London, Edward Arnold, 1960. pp. 48-52, 55-60.

Hume-Rothery, William, Atomic Theory for Students of Metallurgy. London: Institute of Metals, 1955. pp. 113, 154.

Hume-Rothery, William, and Raynor, G. V., The Structure of Metals and Alloys. London: The Institute of Metals, 1956. pp. 45, 50, 54.

Humpston, Giles, and Jacobson, David M., Principles of Soldering. Materials Park, OH: ASM, 2004. ISBN 0-87170-792-6. $165.00 list price. pp. 76-77, 195-196.

Hwang, Jennie S., Implementing Lead-Free Electronics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005. ISBN 0-07-144374-6. $99.95 list price. pp. 197.

Johnson, Colin C., and Kevra, Joseph, Solder Paste Technology: Principles and Applications. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: TAB Professional and Reference Books, 1989. ISBN 0-8306-3203-4. Available from Amazon.com. pp. 15.

Joshi, P. B., and Ramakrishnan, P., Materials for Electrical and Electronic Contacts: Processing, Properties, and Applications. Enfield, NH: Science Publishers, 2004. ISBN 1-57808-269-2. $118.00 list price. pp. 318.

Jowett, C. E., Reliable Electronic Assembly Production. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: TAB Books, 1970. pp. 57, 60.

Le Couteur, Penny, and Burreson, Jay, Napoleon's Buttons: How 17 Molecules Changed History. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 2003. $14.95 list price. pp. 2.

Leidheiser Jr., Henry, The Corrosion of Copper, Tin, and Their Alloys. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1971. ISBN 0-471-52600-2. pp. 326-333.

Leighou, Robert B., Chemistry of Engineering Materials. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1942. pp. 162-163.

Lide, David R., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 82nd Edition 2001-2002. New York: CRC Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8493-0482-2. pp. 4-32.

Liddell, Donald M., Handbook of Nonferrous Metallurgy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1945. pp. 656.

Liddell, Donald M., and Doan, Gilbert E., The Principles of Metallurgy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1933. pp. 349, 360, 363, 376, 388, 428-429.

Louis, Henry, Metallurgy of Tin. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1911. pp. 1-3.

Lyman, Taylor, Metals Handbook, 8th Edition, Volume 1. Novelty, OH: American Society for Metals, 1961. pp. 1131.

Manko, Howard H., Soldering Handbook for Printed Circuits and Surface Mounting. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1986. ISBN 0442-26423-2. Available from Amazon. pp. 100-101.

Manko, Howard H., Solders and Soldering: Materials, Design, Production, and Analysis for Reliable Bonding, 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1992. ISBN 0-07-039970-0. $79.95 list price. pp. 63.

Manko, Howard H., Solders and Soldering, 4th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001. ISBN 0-07-134417-9. pp. 69, 90.

Mantell, C. L., Tin: Its Mining, Production, Technology, and Applications. New York: Chemical Catalog Company, 1929. pp. 17-25.

Mantell, C. L., Tin: Its Mining, Production, Technology, and Applications, 2nd Edition . New York: Reinhold, 1949. pp. 7-12.

Mantell, Charles L., Engineering Materials Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958. pp. 11-2.

Neumuller, Otto-Albrecht, Rompps Chemie-Lexikon, Volume 6. Stuttgart, Germany: Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung, 1988. ISBN 3-440-04516-1. pp. 4714-4717.

Newton, Joseph, An Introduction to Metallurgy, 2nd Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1947. pp. 70-73, 257.

Paul, William, and Warschauer, Douglas M., Solids Under Pressure, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963. pp. 226, 307, 316-317, 327.

Pearson, W. B., A Handbook of Lattice Spacings and Structures of Metals and Alloys . New York: Pergamon Press, 1958. pp. 129.

Pearson, W. B., A Handbook of Lattice Spacings and Structures of Metals and Alloys, Volume 2. New York: Pergamon Press, 1967. pp. 89.

Perry, Robert H., and Green, Donald W., Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 7th Edition. McGraw-Hill, 1997. pp. 2-26.

Pollack, Herman W., Materials Science and Metallurgy. Reston, VA: Reston Publishing, 1977. pp. 49.

Price, J. W., Tin and Tin-Alloy Plating. Great Britain: Electrochemical Publications, 1983. pp. 112-117.

Puttlitz, Karl J., and Stalter, Kathleen A., Handbook of Lead-Free Solder Technology for Microelectronic Assemblies . New York: Marcel Dekker, 2004. pp. 917-919, 925, 929-934.

Reed-Hill, Robert E., Physical Metallurgy Principles. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand, 1964. pp. 315-319.

Rhines, Frederick N., Non-Ferrous Metallography Notes, Part II: Copper and the White Metals . Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Institute of Technology, 1948. pp. 34-b, 34-d, 34-g.

Rose, Robert M., Shepard, Lawrence A., and Wulff, John, Structure and Properties of Materials, Volume IV: Electronic Properties . New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996. pp. 140-141.

Safranek, William H., The Properties of Electrodeposited Metals and Alloys, 2nd Edition . Orlando, FL: American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers Society, 1986. ISBN 0-936569-00-X. pp. 444.

Schlesinger, Mordechay, and Paunovic, Milan, Modern Electroplating, 4th Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000. ISBN 0-471-16824-6. $184.00 list price. pp. 249.

Seitz, Frederick, and Turnbull, David, Solid State Physics, Volume 3. New York: Academic Press, 1956. pp. 246-247, 293-295.

Seitz, Frederick, The Modern Theory of Solids. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1940. pp. 4-8, 61, 483-484.

Seitz, Frederick, The Physics of Metals. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1943. pp. 15-16, 45.

Shangguan, Dongkai, Lead-Free Solder Interconnect Reliability. Materials Park, OH: ASM International, 2005. ISBN 0-87170-816-7. $195.00 list price. pp. 12, 277.

Shreir, L. L., Jarman, R. A., and Burstein, G. T., Corrosion, 3rd Edition, Volume 1. Woburn, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 1994. ISBN 0750610778. pp. 4:157-4:158.

Smallman, R. E., and Bishop, R. J., Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering: Science, process, applications, 6th Edition. Boston, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999. ISBN 0750645644. pp. 20-21.

Stwertka, Albert, A Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, $19.95 list price. pp. 133-134.

Tammann, Gustav, Lehrbuch der Metallographie: Chemie und Physik der Metalle und ihrer Legierungen. Leipzig, Germany: Leopold Voss, 1923. pp. 137-143.

Teed, P. Litherland, The Properties of Metallic Materials at Low Temperatures. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1950. pp. 1, 4, 7, 197-201.

van Arkel, A. E., Reine Metalle, Berlin, Germany: Verlag von Julius Springer, 1939, pp. 491-492.

Verma, Ajit Ram, and Krishna, P., Polymorphism and Polytypism in Crystals. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1966. pp. 9-10, 40, 46, 55-57.

Vianco, Paul T., Soldering Handbook, 3rd Edition. Miami, FL: American Welding Society, 1999. ISBN 0871716186. pp. 190.

Wassink, R. J. Klein, Soldering in Electronics, 2nd Edition. Electrochemical Publications, 1989. ISBN 0 901150 24 X. Available from Amazon. pp. 148.

Wyckoff, Ralph W. G., Crystal Structures, Volume 1. New York: Interscience Publishers, 1960. pp. Chap. II text pages 10, 13.


Ph. D. and Master's Theses on Tin Pest (revised 9/11/2020)

Becker, James Hall, Crystal Growth and Electrical and Optical Properties of Gray Tin. Doctor of Philosophy Thesis for Cornell University, June 1957. pp. 1-253.

Bilderback, Donald Heywood, X-Ray Determination of the Valence Charge Density of Grey Tin, Indium-Antimonide, and Gallium-Arsenide. Ph. D. Thesis for Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, Aug. 1975.

Busta, Heinz, Uniaxial-tensile-stress-modified Galvanomagnetic Properties of Gray Tin. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1974. pp. 1-143.

Choudhuri, Deep, Influence of Nano-structured Chemicals on the Microstructures and Mechanical Reliability of Lead-Free Tin-Based Solders. Ph. D. Thesis for Michigan State University, MI, 2009. pp. 172-193.

Cool, Raymond D., The Kinetics of Polymorphic Transitions of Solids. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 1928.

Goland, Allen Nathan, Thermoelectric Properties of Gray Tin. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, Aug. 1956. pp. 1-83.

Groen, Luiken Jan, Kinetiek van de Allotrope Omzetting in Tin. Echeikundig Ingenieur Thesis, Delft, Netherlands, Oct. 31, 1956. pp. 1-117.

Hensler, Donald Henry, Oscillatory Microwave Magnetoconductivity in Gray Tin. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, Jan. 1963. pp. 1-64.

Hinkley Jr., Everett David, Oscillatory Magnetoresistance in Gray Tin . Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1963. pp. 1-135.

Kim, Hye-Rim, Growth and Low Frequency Noise Properties of Grey Tin Films. Ph. D. Thesis for Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, May 1991. pp. 1-228.

Kohnke, Elton Everett, Electrical Conductivity, Magnetoresistance, and Hall Effect in Gray Tin Filaments. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, July 1955. pp. 1-94.

Lavine, Charles Frederic, Two-band Galvanomagnetic Effects in Gray Tin . Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1968. pp. 1-130.

Lee, Jong-Gi, Investigation of Thermomechanical Fatigue (TMF) Behavior in Tin-Silver Based Solder Joints. Ph. D. Thesis for Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2005. pp. 11-12.

Leung, Wai-Bor, Electronic Properties of Gray Tin in the Presence of an External Magnetic Field. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1974. pp. 1-97.

Lindquist, Rolf Eugene, The Infrared Optical Properties of Single-crystal Gray Tin. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1963. pp. 1-179.

Mudge J., Wilbur L., Kinetics of the alpha to/from beta Transformation of Pure Tin. Master's Thesis for the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, June 1949. pp. 1-24 & figures.

Pease, David Eugene, Deformation and Interface Morphology for the Alpha to Beta and Beta to Alpha Phase Transformation of Tin. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1972. pp. 1-104.

Roman, Bernard John, Stress-Induced Bandgap and Related Phenomena in Gray Tin. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1969. pp. 1-172.

Tu, Li-Wei, Shubnikov-de Haas and Size Effects of Substrate Stabilized Gray Tin Epilayers Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, Dec. 1989. pp. 1-149.

Tufte, Obert Norman, Growth and Semiconducting Properties of Gray Tin Single Crystals. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1960. pp. 1-94.

Wagner, Robert John, Free Carrier Reflectivity of Gray Tin Single Crystals. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, Aug. 1967. pp. 1-118.


Papers, Reports, and Magazine Articles on Tin Pest (revised 2/5/2021)

"Allotropic Transformation of Tin," Tin and its Uses, no. 161, pp. 3, 1989.

"Baroque Magnificence in Tin An Austrian Shrine," Tin and its Uses , no. 43, pp. 1-7, Summer 1958.

"Lead-free solder and tin pests," finishing.com.

"NPL SSTC lead-free meeting previews unique video of tin transformation," emsnow, June 1, 2007.

"Sitzung vom 25. October," Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, vol. 2, pp. 540-541, 1869.

"Standard Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings of Tin", ASTM Standard B 545 - 97, West Conshohocken, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 1997.

"Susceptibility to "Tin Pest"," Nihon Superior.

"The Contagious Diseases of Metals," Scientific American, vol. 102 no. 26, pp. 517-518, June 25, 1910.

"The Failure of Tin Beer Cooling Coils," Tin and its Uses, no. 3, pp. 13, Oct. 1939.

"Tin as Semiconductor," Science News Letter, vol 58 no. 8, pp. 118, Aug. 19, 1950.

"Tin disease, organ pipes and Napoleonic buttons," Advanced Materials & Processes, vol. 162 no. 4, pp. 51, Apr. 2004.

"Tin Pest," Nihon Superior.

"Tin-Zinc Plating Grows Up," Tin and its Uses, no. 29, pp. 9, Sept. 1953.

"Transformation of Tin," Tin and its Uses, no. 14, pp. 14, May 1943.

"Typical Analyses of Various Brands of Tin," Tin and its Uses, no. 27, pp. 6-7, Nov. 1952.

"Typical Tin Analyses," Tin and its Uses, no. 77, pp. 8-9, 1968.

"What is Tin Pest and how does it occur?," LiveWire, no. 11, pp. xx-xx, Nov./Dec. 2003.

Adachi, Sadao, "Optical properties of a-Sn," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 66 no. 2, pp. 813-819, July 15, 1989.

Albano, M., Fichera, G. V., Rovetta, T., Guida, G., Licchelli, M., Merlo, C., Cofrancesco, P., Milanese, C., and Malagodi, M., "Microstructural investigations on historical organ pipes," Journal of Materials Science, vol. 52 no. 16, pp. 9859-9871, Aug. 2017.

Aptekar', I. L., and Styrkas, A. D., "Inert Supports as Carriers of Tin-Plague Infection from InSb to beta-Sn," High-Purity Substances (a translation of Vysokochistye Veshchestva) vol. 7 no. 3, pp. 282-284, May-June 1993.

Aptekar', I. L., and Styrkas, A. D., "Nature of Memory in the Case of a Phase Transition in Tin After a beta-alpha-beta Cycle," High-Purity Substances (a translation of Vysokochistye Veshchestva) vol. 7 no. 3, pp. 285-288, May-June 1993.

Aptekar', I. L., Styrkas, A. D., and Aptekar', L. I., "The Nature of Tin Plague," High-Purity Substances (a translation of Vysokochistye Veshchestva) vol. 7 no. 3, pp. 289-292, May-June 1993.

Aresti, A., Garbato, L., and Rucci, A., "Some Cohesive Energy Features of Tetrahedral Semiconductors," Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 45 no. 3, pp. 361-365, 1984.

Ashkhotov, O. G., Ashkhotova, I. B., and Krymshokalova, D. A., "On the Mechanism of Electron-Stimulated Formation of a Nanosize C-Sn Coating on a Tin Surface," Physics of Metals and Metallography, vol. 110 no. 6, pp. 553-556, Dec. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0031918X10120057

Asom, M. T., Kortan, A. R., Kimerling, L. C., and Farrow, R. C., "Structure and stability of metastable a-Sn," Applied Physics Letters , vol. 55 no. 14, pp. 1439-1441, Oct. 2, 1989.

Aubry, S., and Ortiz, M., "The Mechanics of Deformation-Induced Subgrain-Dislocation Structures in Metallic Crystals at Large Strains," Proceedings: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol. 459 no. 2040, pp. 3131-3158, Dec. 8, 2003.

Avrami, Melvin, "Kinetics of Phase Change, I: General Theory," Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 7 no. 12, pp. 1103-1112, Dec. 1939.

Avrami, Melvin, "Kinetics of Phase Change, II: Transformation-Time Relations for Random Distribution of Nuclei," Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 8 no. 2, pp. 212-224, Feb. 1940.

Ballentyne, D. W. G., "The preparation and properties of certain technologically important semimetals and semiconductors," Metallurgical Reviews, vol. 16 no. 1, pp. 149-160, 1971. https://doi.org/10.1179/mtlr.1971.16.1.149

Barten, P. G. J., "Continue waarneming van het rekristallisatie-proces bij metalen met gepolariseerd licht," Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Natuurkunde, vol. 20, pp. 25-35, 1954.

Becker, J. H., "On the Linear Rate of Transformation of White to Gray Tin," Bulletin of the American Physical Society, Series II, vol. 1 no. 1, pp. 45, Jan. 30, 1956.

Becker, J. H., "On the Quality of Gray Tin Crystals and Their Rate of Growth," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 29 no. 7, pp. 1110-1121, July 1958.

Becker, J. H., "Studies of Crystal Growth, and Electrical and Optical Properties of Gray Tin," Physical Review, Second Series, vol. 98 no. 4, pp. 1192, May 15, 1955.

Bell, M. I., "Valence force potential calculations of the lattice dynamics of diamond-type crystals," Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 62 no. 8, pp. 3357-3358, Apr. 15, 1975.

Berroukche, A., Soudini, B., and Amara, K., "Molecular dynamics simulation study of structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of tin below 286 K," International Journal of Nanoelectronics and Materials, vol. 1 no. 1, pp. 41-51, Jan. 2008.

Bijl, A. J., and Kolkmeijer, N. H., "De Kristalstructuur van Het Grauwe Tin," Chemisch Weekblad, vol. 15 nr. 40, pp. 1264, Oct. 5, 1918.

Bijl, A. J., and Kolkmeijer, N. H., "De Kristalstructuur van Tin," Chemisch Weekblad, vol. 15 no. 35, pp. 1077-1079, Aug. 31, 1918.

Bijl, A. J., and Kolkmeijer, N. H., "Investigation by means of X-rays of the crystal-structure of white and grey tin. I," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 21 no. 3, pp. 405-408, 1919.

Bijl, A. J., and Kolkmeijer, N. H., "Investigation by means of X-rays of the crystal-structure of white and grey tin, II. The structure of white tin," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 21 no. 4, pp. 494-500, 1919.

Bijl, A. J., and Kolkmeijer, N. H., "Investigation by means of X-rays of the crystal-structure of white and grey tin, III. The structure of grey tin," Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, vol. 21 no. 4, pp. 501-504, 1919.

Blake, N., and Smith, R. W., "Electron microscopy of grey tin," Journal of Materials Science Letters , vol. 5 no. 1, pp. 103-104, Jan. 1986. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01671454

Blanche, J. F., and Strickland, S. M., "Lead-Free Experiment in a Space Environment," NASA/TM-2012-217463, July 2012.

Bloembergen, N., "Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation in Semiconductors," Physica, vol. 20 no. 7-12, pp. 1130-1133, 1954. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-8914(54)80253-9

Blum, A. I., and Goryunova, N. A., "(russian)," Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR, vol. 75 no. 3, pp. 367-370, 1950.

Bokhout, H., and van Lent, P. H., "Electric properties of gray tin single crystals grown in tin-mercury alloys," Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 24 no. 5, pp. 704-706, May 1963.

Bornemann, Alfred, ""Tin Disease" in Solder Type Alloys," Symposium on Solder (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 189), Atlantic City, NJ, June 19-20, 1956, pp. 129-148.

Bowering, Norbert, and Meier, Christian, "Sticking behavior and transformation of tin droplets on silicon wafers and multilayer-coated mirrors," Applied Physics A, vol. 125 no. 9, pp. 633, Sept. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00339-019-2927-8

Bowman Jr., R. C., Adams, P. M., Engelhardt, M. A., and Hochst, H., "Structural characterization of a-Sn and a-Sn1-x Gex alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy on CdTe and InSb," Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum Surfaces, and Films, vol. 8 no. 3, pp. 1577-1581, May 1990. https://doi-org.ezproxy.uky.edu/10.1116/1.576768

Brachmann, Matthias, "Is everybody ready?," emsnow, Dec. 21, 2004.

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Web Pages on Tin Pest (revised 10/28/2020)

"Concerned about "tin pest"," Circuitnet, June 11, 2006.

"Cure or treatment for tin disease," finishing.com.

"European directives vs. Tin Whiskers & Tin Pest," finishing.com .

grey tin (tin pest) time-lapse video, Youtube, May 2, 2009.

"Lead-free solder and tin pests," finishing.com.

Making Grey Tin (tin pest), Youtube, Apr. 2, 2016.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Tin Whisker (and Other Metal Whisker) Homepage

Periodic Table of the Elements Atomic Radius

Smit, David, "Pipemaking Metal Pipes - Part I: Metallurgy,"

RoHS Report

Tin - A Metal That DESTROYS ITSELF!, Youtube, Aug. 12, 2017.

Tin Pest

tin pest, Youtube, May 4, 2009.

Dr. Ron, "Tin Pest in Medieval Culture," Aug. 13, 2020.

"Tin Pest or Tin Disease," finishing.com.

Lasky, Ronald C., "Tin Pest: Still a Forgotten Concern in Lead Free Assembly," Dr. Lasky's Blog, Aug. 17, 2005.

tin pest, transformation of beta tin into alpha modification (grey tin), Youtube, May 3, 2009.

"Tin Plague," Corrosion Club.

"Tin plating for very cold environments; alloying to avoid tin pest," finishing.com

I would like to thank David Hillman for contributing to this study.


dBi Corporation was a one-man test house (testing laboratory) based in Lexington, Kentucky, testing a wide variety of commercial electronic products for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), electromagnetic interference (EMI), and electrostatic discharge (ESD) under its ISO 17025 accreditation. dBi was founded in Winchester, Kentucky in 1995 by Donald R. Bush, shortly after he retired from 30 years service with IBM Lexington's/ Lexmark's EMC Lab. John R. Barnes, who'd worked with Don at IBM Lexington and Lexmark, bought dBi in 2002 after Don's death, and moved the company to Lexington, Kentucky. John closed dBi at 11:59pm EDT on September 30, 2013, because ObamaCrap had increased operating expenses to the point that we could no longer afford to remain in business.

We'd like to thank all of the clients who chose dBi to test their products from 1995 to 2013. Below is a brief summary of our accomplishments during the 18 years we were in business.

From 1995 to 2001, under Don Bush's ownership and operation, dBi:

From 2002 to 2013, under John Barnes' ownership and operation, dBi:

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