Bibliography for Tin Whiskers

This web site is being maintained by John R. Barnes, who was the President and Chief Engineer of dBi Corporation from 2002 to September 30, 2013, when we closed because ObamaCrap made it too expensive for us to remain in business.

John R. Barnes KS4GL, PE, NCE, NCT, ESDC Eng, ESDC Tech, PSE, Master EMC Design Engineer, SM IEEE (retired)
April 16, 2017
jrbarnes@iglou.com

Tin whiskers are conductive filaments that can spontaneously grow from tin plating and some tin alloys (i.e. solders). Typical tin whiskers are 2 to 3 microns (0.002 to 0.003mm) in diameter-- about 1/40th the diameter of a human hair-- and can carry 10's of milliamps of current without melting. If a tin whisker connects two signal traces, or connects a signal trace to a power/ ground trace, the resulting short-circuit can make the equipment fail intermittently or permanently. But if a tin whisker crosses a battery or turned-on power supply, it may melt and form a plasma that can carry 100's of amps of current, damaging or destroying the equipment!

Up until about year 2000, tin whiskers were almost unknown in the electronics industry, because we mainly used tin-lead solders, tin-lead platings on printed circuit boards (PCB's), and tin-lead platings and tin-lead terminations on electronic components. As little as 2 to 3% lead alloyed with tin gives us almost-perfect protection against the growth of tin whiskers .

But about 2000, the European Union (EU) started pushing for the removal of lead from electronic equipment. On February 13, 2003, the EU published the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (RoHS Directive, Directive 2002/95/EC (now replaced by Directive 2011/65/EU)), to take effect on July 1, 2006. This Directive almost totally bans the use of lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls (PBB's), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE's) in electronic products and equipment.

This ban on lead introduces a variety of new failure modes that:

of electronic products and equipment, with tin whiskers being the worst problem.

As a result, since 2000 there has been a tremendous amount of research by electronics manufacturers, universities, and consultants, trying to find ways to:

in electronic products and equipment.

This bibliography covers some 1300 documents that I have collected since 2004 on tin whiskers, including:


Books on Tin Whiskers (9/25/2016)

The Lead Free Electronics Manhattan Project - Phase II. The Benchmarking and Best Practices Center of Excellence, May 31, 2010. pp. 131-132,Appendix C.

Buschow, K. H. J., Cahn, Robert, Flemings, Merton C., Ilschner, Bernhard, Kramer, Edward J., Mahajan, Subhash, and Veyssiere, Patrick, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Volume 10. (Katz, J. D., "Whiskers," pp. 9570-9574.) Pergamon, 2001. ISBN 0080431526. $7,295.00 list price.

Fukuda, Mitsuo, Reliability and Degradation of Semiconductor Lasers and LEDs. Boston: Artech House, 1991. ISBN 0890064652.

Gilman, J. J., The Art and Science of Growing Crystals. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1963.

Grossmann, Gunter, and Zardini, Christian, The ELFNET Book on Failure Mechanisms, Testing Methods, and Quality Issues of Lead-Free Solder Interconnects. New York: Springer, 2011. ISBN 978-0-85729-235-3. $129.00 list price.

Henshall, Greg, Bath, Jasbir, and Handwerker, Carol A., Lead-Free Solder Process Development. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN 978-0-470-41074-5. $99.95 list price.

Kato, Takahiko, Handwerker, Carol A., and Bath, Jasbir, Mitigating Tin Whisker Risks: Theory and Practice. Hoboken, NJ: IEEE Press, 2016. ISBN 9780470907238.

Levitt, Albert P., Whisker Technology. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1970. ISBN 471-53150-2.

Licari, James J., and Enlow, Leonard R., Hybrid Microcircuit Technology Handbook: Materials, Processes, Design, Testing and Production, 2nd Edition. Westwood, NJ: Noyes Publications, 1998. ISBN 0815514239. $180.00 list price.

Tan, A. C., Tin and Solder Plating in the Semiconductor Industry. New York: Chapman & Hall, 1993. ISBN 0-412-48240-1.

Wright, Roger N., Wire Technology: Process Engineering and Metallurgy. Elsevier, 2011. ISBN 978-0-12-382092-1.


Ph. D. and Master's Theses on Tin Whiskers (11/21/2015)

Anglin, Benjamin Stewart, Investigation and Characterization of Thermoelastic Eigenstresses Near Microstructural Features and the Application to Tin Whisker Growth. Ph. D. Thesis for Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, Oct. 2012.

Bhardwaj, Divya, Development of Lead Free Thermal Fuse Wires Using Ohno Continuous Casting. Master's Thesis for University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 2008.

Bierman, Matthew John, Dislocations in One-Dimensional Semiconductor Crystals: Nanowires, Nanotubes, and Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, 2009.

Buchovecky, Eric J., Numerical Simulation of Stress Generation and Whisker Growth in Sn Films. Ph. D. Thesis for Brown University, Providence, RI, May 2010.

Chandler, Gary Jesse Howard, Growth of Whiskers in the Indium-Tin Alloy System and the effect of Elastic Strain on Tc in alpha Indium-Tin. Master's Thesis for Clemson University, Clemson, SC, Aug. 1972.

Cheng, Jing, Tin Whiskers in Electronic Packaging: Mechanism and Modeling. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 2011.

Chin, Erica, Templated Synthesis and Characterization of Multi-segmented Nanowires for Sensor and Optical Device Applications. Master's Thesis for University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, 2009.

Clore, Nicholas, and Fritz, Dennis, "Identification and Counting Procedure for Tin Whiskers, Hillocks, and Other Surface Defects," Tin Whisker Group Teleconference, Oct. 26, 2011.

Courey, Karim J., An Investigation of the Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics of Tin Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, May 2008.

Dimitrovska, Aleksandra, Mitigation Strategies of Tin(Sn) Whisker Growth, Ph. D. Thesis for Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, Dec. 19, 2009.

Crandall, Erika R., Factors Governing Tin Whisker Growth. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 2012.

Fang, Tong, Tin Whisker Risk Assessment Studies. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. 2005.

Fukuda, Yuki, Experimental Investigations of Whisker Formation on Tin Platings . Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. 2005.

Gao, Fan, Lead-Free Nano-solders on Metallic Nanowires: Synthesis, Characterization, and Thermal Reflow Properties. Master's Thesis for University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, Apr. 21, 2009.

Han, Jung Kyu, Effect of Thermo-Electromigration on Copper Dissolution and Intermetallic Compound Formation in Flip-Chip Pb-free Solder Joints. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Han, Sungwon, Assessment of an Electrical Shorting and Metal Vapor Arcing Potential of Tin Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2012.

Kao, Hui-Ju, Effect of Cu additives on Sn whisker formation and interfacial reaction of Sn(Cu) finishes. Master's Thesis for National Central University, Jhong-Li, Taiwan, May 23, 2005.

Lee, Taekyeong, Electromigration and Solid State Aging of Flip Chip Solder Joints and Analysis of Sn Whisker on Lead-frame. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2001.

Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, Evaluation of Environmental Tests for Tin Whisker Assessment. Master's Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2009.

Pedigo, Aaron E., The Influence of the Effective Physical Properties of Tin Electrodeposited Films on the Growth of Tin Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, May 2011.

Pinol, Lesly Agnes, Fundamental Studies of Tin Whiskering in Microelectronics Finishes . Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2010.

Rodekohr, Chad L., Material Factors Influencing Metallic Whisker Growth. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, Dec. 19, 2008.

Sabbagh, N. A. J., Tin Whisker Growth in the Communication Industry. Master's Thesis for Sir George Williams University, Montreal, Canada, Apr. 1973.

Sarobol, Pylin, Effects of Local Film Properties on the Nucleation and Growth of Tin Whiskers and Hillocks. Ph. D. Thesis for Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, May 2013.

Spitzner, Matthew James, Response of tin whiskers to dynamic input: Mathematical modeling and experimental property measurement. Master's Thesis for Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 2009.


Papers, Reports, Presentations, and Magazine Articles on Tin Whiskers
(revised 4/16/2017)

"100% Sn Plating Whisker Growth Study," AMD, Jan. 10, 2003.

"Back Up Block 1 Whisker on Cu," June 6, 2003.

"Back Up Block 2 Whisker on NiFe," June 6, 2003.

"Basler Power Supplies," Westinghouse Nuclear Tech Bulletin TB-02-5, July 12, 2002.

"BMPCOE Strives to Mitigate Tin Whiskers," COTS Journal, vol. xx no. xx, pp. 60-63, Sept. 2003.

"Boeing 601 (f.k.a. Hughes HS 601)."

"Close Shave," Printed Circuit Design and Manufacture, vol. 20 no. 8, pp. 10, Aug. 2003.

"Coating to stop tin whisker growth?," Circuitnet, Aug. 14, 2006.

"Comments on Test Methods & Criteria for Tin Whiskers in Surface Mount Passive Devices," EIA/ECA-CB22, Nov. 2005.

"Control of Whisker Growth in Tin Alloy Coatings," ST Microelectronics Application Note AN2035, Nov. 2004.

"Electrodeposited Pb-free Solder and Whisker Prevention," Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, vol. 106 no. 2, pp. 490, Mar./Apr. 2001.

"Elimination of Lead from Electrical and Electronic Equipment - the Dilemma of Tin-Whisker Growth," Eurocomp, no. 7, pp. 3-6, Autumn 2004.

"European directives vs. Tin Whiskers & Tin Pest," finishing.com .

"Examples of tin-whiskers failures," evertiq, Oct. 11, 2007.

"Examples of Whiskergrowing in Industry Applications," 3rd Electronic Materials and Assembly Processes for Space (EMPS) Workshop, Genova, Italy, Mar. 21, 2012.

"GEIA-HB-0005-4 Guidelines for Performing Reliability Assessment for Pb Free Assemblies used in Aerospace and High-Performance Electronic Applications," Sept. 23, 2010.

"GEIA-STD-0005-2 Standard for Mitigating the Effects of Tin Whiskers in Aerospace and High Performance Electronic Systems," Rev A draft 1/5/11.

"Getting the Lead Out," Appliance Design, vol. xx no. x, pp. xx-xx, Feb. 2006.

"Glitch silences millions of pagers," Star-Bulletin, May 20, 1998.

Green-Guard 701 Aug. 15, 2009.

"High-Speed, Non-Whiskering Tin for Semiconductor Packages," Products Finishing, vol. 47 no. 12, pp. 80, Sept. 1983.

"Hot-Dip Tin Process Said to Prevent Whisker Formation," Products Finishing, vol. 73 no. 7, pp. 11, Apr. 2009.

"HP says RoHS making whiskers problem worse," evertiq, Feb. 22, 2005.

"HP's Position Statement on Tin-based Plating for Lead-free Components," Apr. 7, 2003.

"Hughes Satellite Failures Continue To Plague New Owner," Electronics Weekly, Apr. 24, 2001.

"Hughes Seeks To Salvage Satellites," Television Digest with Consumer Electronics, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Sept. 11, 2000.

"Inadvertent Reactor Trip and Partial Safety Injection Due to Tin Whisker," United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC Information Notice 2005-25, Aug. 25, 2005.

"Industry Groups Continue Focus on Tin Whiskers," CPMT Society Outlook , vol. 1, pp. 3-4, 2005.

"iNEMI Tin Whisker Accelerated Test Project Test Method for Evaluating Tin Whisker Growth on Plated Surfaces." International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, June 17, 2004.

"iNEMI tin whisker group publishes updated recommendations," Tin World, no. 17, pp. 11, Spring 2007.

"iNEMI Tin Whisker user group publishes updated recommendations to help reduce risk of tin whiskers," emsnow, Dec. 20, 2006.

"iNEMI Tin Whisker Workshop," Tin World, no. 18, pp. 14, Early Summer 2007.

"iNEMI Updates Tin Whiskers Findings," SMT Web Exclusive Article.

"Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations Tin Wiskers Problems, Causes, and Solutions," Food and Drug Administration, Mar. 14, 1986.

"Interim Recommendations on Lead-Free Finishes for Components Used in High- Reliability Products,", NEMI, Mar. 2004.

"ITG Subject: Tin Whiskers - Problems, Causes, and Solutions," Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Public Health Service Food and Drug Administration *ORA/ORO/DEIO/IB*, Mar. 14, 1986.

"JEDEC and IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing," Tin World , no. 14, pp. 11, 2006.

"JEDEC and IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard and Mitigation Practices Guideline," CircuiTree, vol. 19 no. 5, pp. xx-xx, May 2006.

"JEDEC and IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard and Mitigation Practices Guideline," PCB007, May 4, 2006.

"JEDEC and IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard and Mitigation Practices Guideline," FPGA and Structured ASIC Journal, vol. xx no. x, pp. xx-xx, May 4, 2006.

"JEDEC and IPC release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard and Mitigation Practices Guideline," emsnow, May 5, 2006.

"JEDEC, iNEMI Update Tin Whisker and Lead-Free Surface Finish Guidelines," CircuiTree, vol. 18 no. 7, pp. xx-xx, July 2005.

"JEDEC, IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard," Circuitree, vol. 19 no. 6, pp. xx-xx, June 2006.

"JEDEC, IPC Release Tin Whisker Standards," Printed Circuit Design and Manufacture, vol. 23 no. 6, pp. 8, June 2006.

"JEDEC Releases Standard for Tin Whisker Testing and iNEMI User Group Updates Lead-Free Surface Finish Guidelines," PCB007, May 24, 2005.

"JEITA Whisker Test Method Project," IPC and SOLDERTEC Global Conference, Brussels, June 2003.

"JESD201, Environmental Acceptance Requirements for Tin Whisker Susceptibility of Tin and Tin Alloy Surface Finishes," Arlington, VA: JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, Mar. 2006.

"JESD22A121, Measuring Whisker Growth on Tin and Tin Alloy Surface Finishes," JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, May 2005.

"JESD22A121.01, Test Method for Measuring Whisker Growth on Tin and Tin Alloy Surface Finishes," JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, Oct. 2005.

"JETRO Releases the Results of its Survey of Japanese Manufacturers in Europe and Turkey," PCB007, May 26, 2006.

"JP002, Current Tin Whiskers Theory and Mitigation Practices Guideline," Arlington, VA: JEDEC Solid State Technology Association and Bannockburn, IL: IPC, Mar. 2006.

Lead Free Electronics Manhattan Project Phase 2. ACI Technologies, Feb. 10, 2010.

"Lead Free Product Testing," Trace Laboratories-East.

"Lead Free Product Testing/Tin Whisker Testing," Trace Laboratories-East.

"Lead-Free solder failure mechanisms: What are Tin Whiskers?," LiveWire, no. 11, pp. xx-xx, .Nov./Dec. 2003.

"Lead Free Tin Whiskering Study: Grayhill DIP Switches," Grayhill, May 11, 2004.

"Lead-free: Whiskers on Tin," Tyco Electronics.

"Leadfree Solder and Tin Whiskers Program Guidance (draft)," Lead Free Soldering Summit, Philadelphia, PA, July 13-14, 2005.

"Legs 1, 2 & 3: Olin 194 8lead SOIC Molded/Singulated."

"Matte Tin Plating Whisker Data," Lattice Product Bulletin PB1227H, Nov. 2010.

"MAUDE Adverse Event Report," 1996.

"MAUDE Adverse Event Report," 2008.

"Metal Whiskers," Science, New Series, vol. 123 no. 3209, pp. 1165, June 29, 1956.

"Metallic Whisker Sources," Worldwide Environmental Services, 2004.

"Nano Whiskers."

"NASA's Suggestions for Reducing Risk of Tin Whisker Induced Failures," Products Finishing, vol. 74 no. 12, pp. 32, Sept. 2010.

"NEMI Group Releases Draft Proposal of Tin Whisker Acceptance Test Requirements," CircuiTree, vol. 17 no. 6, pp. xx-xx. June 2004.

"NEMI Issues Revised Tin Whisker Acceptance Test Requirements," NEMI, Aug. 30, 2004.

"NEMI issues revised tin whisker acceptance test requirements," PCB007, Aug. 30, 2004.

"NEMI issues revised tin whisker acceptance test requirements," emsnow, Sept. 6, 2004.

"NEMI issues revised tin whisker test requirements," TIN World , no. 7, pp. 17, 2004.

"NEMI team recommends three test conditions for evaluating tin whisker growth," PCB007, Oct. 6, 2003.

"NEMI Team Recommends Three Test Conditions for Evaluating Tin Whisker Growth," CircuiTree, vol. 16 no. 12, pp. xx-xx, Dec. 2003.

"NEMI's Tin Whisker Project reports initial test results, reviews modeling efforts at APEX 2002," PCB007, Feb. 8, 2002.

"New additive limits tin whiskers," Solid State Technology, vol. 51 no. 1, pp. 23, Jan. 2008.

"New Immersion Tin Process PRESA RMK-30: Tin Whisker Issue," Uyemura, Mar. 2007.

"New Standards on Tin Whisker Mitigation," Circuits Assembly, vol. 17 no. 4, pp. 36, Apr. 2006.

"New tin whisker standard," Tin World, no. 18, pp. 16, Early Summer 2007.

"New TWI proposed project: Tin Whiskers - reducing the risk," TWI LiveWire, issue 14, Summer 2004.

"Nickel-coated Components Solve Electrical Problem," Nickel, vol. 20 no. 2, pp. 5, Mar. 2005.

"On Trial In Brazil," Air Safety Week, vol. 21 no. 23, June 11, 2007.

"Plating's Effects on Electronics Assembly," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 7, pp. 40, July 2010.

"Position Paper on Risks to High-Reliability Electronics and Associated Hardware from Pure Tin Coatings," July 25, 2002.

"Potential Tin Whiskers on Printed Circuit Board Components," Westinghouse Nuclear Tech Bulletin TB-05-4, June 8, 2005.

Problem Advisory FV5-P-06-01A

"Qualification of Lead Free Component Plating Finishes," Nov. 3, 2003.

"Qualification Procedure for Tin Whisker Formation in Lead-free Connector Terminal Finishes," Molex.

"Rationale for the Auger Studies," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, May 11, 2016.

"Recommendations on Lead-Free Finishes for Components Used in High-Reliability Products," iNEMI Tin Whisker User Group, Version 3, May 2005.

"Reducing the risk of tin whiskers on lead-free products," RF Design, vol. xx no. x, pp. xx-xx, May 10, 2006.

"Requested Exemption from the requirements of Article 4(1) of Directive 2002/95/EC," Swatch, Jan. 12, 2006.

"Resolution of Generic Safety Issues: Issue 200: Tin Whiskers (NUREG-0933, Main Report with Supplements 1-33) Nov. 3, 2010.

"Risks of Conductive Whiskers in High-Reliability Electronics and Associated Hardware from Pure Tin Coatings," June 19, 2002.

"RoHS at QP Semiconductor," QP Semiconductor Application Note 114 Rev. 2.0, Feb. 2008.

"Scientists Research Tin Pest and Whiskers," SMT Web Exclusive Article. (Apr. 3, 2009)

"Second ECTC iNEMI Tin Whisker Workshop," Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society Newsletter, vol. 28 no. 2, pp. 8-9, June 2005.

"Set of recommendations to help reduce risk of Tin Whiskers," evertiq, Dec. 18, 2006.

"Shaving the Risk of Tin Whiskers," NITON Application Bulletin , Mar. 17, 2004.

"Shaving the whiskers for lead-free production," European Semiconductor, vol. 26 no. 11, pp. 17, Nov. 1, 2004.

"Some Examples of "Whiskers" from Tin-Based Alloys," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, July 22, 2009.

"Standards aim to reduce the risk of tin whiskers," Test & Measurement World, vol. 26 no. 4, pp. xx-xx, May 4, 2006.

"Standards aim to reduce the risk of tin whiskers," Test & Measurement World, vol. 26 no. 5, pp. 12, June 2006.

"Suppression of Tin Whisker Growth through Optimized Tin Plating Chemistry Formulation Technistan EP," Technic. (2004)

"Technical Service Bulletin: Tin Whiskers in MOD10 Relays." GE Power Management, MOD10 SB1-00.03.27, Mar. 27, 2000.

"Technical Support to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) on the Reported Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) Unintended Acceleration (UA) Investigation, Version 1.0." NASA. Jan. 18, 2011.

"Testing for Tin Whisker Mitigation," Design News, June 27, 2005.

"The Facts about Tin Whiskers," Electronic Components, Assemblies & Materials Association, EIA/ECA-CB19, Aug. 2004.

"The Fusing of Wires and Tin Whiskers," Tin Whisker Group teleconferences, Apr. 22, 2009 and Apr. 29, 2009.

"The Growth of Tin Whisker," Samsung.

"The problem of 'tin whiskers' cannot be neglected," Dataweek , vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, July 28, 2004.

"The Relation between Whisker and Stress," Hynix Semiconductor. Sept. 2002.

"Thermal cycling test of tin-bismuth and tin plating," Ishihara Chemical Co., 2008.

"Three organizations from US, Europe, Japan cooperating to develop tin whisker test method," PCB007, July 18, 2003.

"Tin-Nickel Alloy Plating Does Not Grow Whiskers in Five Years," Tin and its Uses, no. 64, pp. 15, 1964.

"Tin-Nickel versus Metal "Whiskers"," Tin and its Uses, no. 52, pp. 8, 1961.

"Tin "Noodles"???." Mar. 17, 2004.

"Tin Whisker Acceptance Test Requirements," NEMI Tin Whisker Users Group, July 28, 2004.

"Tin Whisker Experience - Rocket Motor Initiator Failure Analysis."

"Tin Whisker Experiences," June 19, 2002.

"Tin Whisker Growth Evaluation Results," Kemet, Mar. 30, 2004.

"Tin Whisker Imagery," empfasis, pp. 9, Apr. 2009.

"Tin Whisker Info "Brief"," On Semiconductor Application Note TND311, May 2003.

"Tin-whisker issues deserve to be on the front burner," Military & AerospaceElectronics. (May 12, 2006)

"Tin Whisker Mitigation & Conformal Coating," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 28 no. 2, pp. 57, Feb. 2013.

"Tin Whisker Mitigation on New and Stored Parts," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 29 no. 3, pp. 36-37, Mar. 2012.

"Tin Whisker Qualification and Reliability Testing," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 28 no. 10, pp. 37,39, Oct. 2011.

"Tin Whisker References."

"Tin Whisker Specs Defined," Metals and Interconnects, vol. 18 no. 7, pp. xx, Aug. 2004.

"Tin Whisker User Group Publishes Updated Set of Recommendations Help Reduce Risk of Tin Whiskers," PCB007, Dec. 15, 2006.

"Tin Whisker Workshop." (Apr. 2, 2005)

"Tin Whiskering Borders on Urban Legend," Design News, vol. 60 no. 11, pp. xx, Aug. 15, 2005.

"Tin Whiskers," Electronics Manufacture and Test, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Dec. 7, 2003.

"Tin Whiskers," Sept. 14, 2004.

"Tin Whiskers." (Apr. 3, 2005)

"Tin Whiskers," Circuitnet, May 14, 2007.

"Tin Whiskers 2012," 3rd Electronic Materials and Assembly Processes for Space (EMPS) Workshop, Genova, Italy, Mar. 21, 2012.

"Tin whiskers a problem with immersion tin pwb finishes? ," finishing.com. Oct. 3, 2000.

"Tin Whiskers and Conversion to Pb-Free," Circuits Assembly, vol. 16 no. 12, pp. 38-40, Dec. 2005.

"Tin Whiskers: Companies Taking Cover Under iNEMI Guidelines," Design News, vol. 60 no. 12, pp. xx, Sept 5, 2005.

"Tin whiskers in electronic," finishing.com. Dec. 16, 1999.

"Tin whiskers - reducing the risk," LiveWire, no. 15, pp. xx-xx, Feb./Mar. 2005.

"Tin Whiskers Syfer Surface Mount Capacitors," Syfer Application Note AN0019 Issue 3.

"Tin wisker might delay RoHS schedule," Industry News, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Mar. 18, 2005.

"TO-220 Lead Free and RoHS Compliance Document," International Rectifier. Aug. 23, 2005.

"Trace Laboratories-Central Announces Their New Tin Whisker Testing Program (iNEMI-Specified)," Trace Laboratories. Jan. 26, 2005.

"TW System Failures," NAVSEA, Apr. 3, 2005.

"UCLA Department of Materials Science and Engineering."

"When Electronics Get Five O'Clock Shadow," Jan. 5, 2005.

"Whisker control plating process YWL SYSTEM," Yuken.

"Whisker Formation on Tin Plated Cu based Leadframes: Results and Conclusions," Oct. 29. 2004.

"Whisker Formation on Tin Plated FeNi42: Results and Conclusions," Oct. 29, 2004.

"Whisker Formation Test Report," Phoenix Passive Components. June 2004.

"Whisker-free Tin Coatings for Electronic Components," Tin and its Uses , no. 74, pp. 5, 1967.

"Whisker Woes," Air Safety Week, vol. 18 no. 45, pp. xx-xx, Nov. 22, 2004.

"Whiskers Can't Be Eliminated," Design News, vol. 61 no. 9, pp. xx, June 26, 2006.

"Whiskers on Monitor PCBs," Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, Sept. 5, 2008.

"Whiskers on USB housing of PC Mother Board," Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, Sept. 5, 2008.

Abbott, Don, and Romm, Doug, "TI Tin Whisker and Pb-Free Finish Evaluations," Lead Free Electronics Workshop, Marlborough, MA, June 19, 2003.

Al-Salman, Rihab, Sommer, Heino, Brezesinski, Torsten, and Janek, Jurgen, "Template-Free Electrochemical Synthesis of High Aspect Ratio Sn Nanowires in Ionic Liquids: A General Route to Large-Area Metal and Semimetal Nanowire Arrays?," Chemistry of Materials, vol. 27 no. 11, pp. 3830-3837, June 9, 2015.

Amato, Ivan, "Tin Whiskers: The Next Y2K Problem?," Fortune, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Dec. 29, 2004.

Anderson, A. F., "Provisional notes on the CTS electronic accelerator pedals as used in some Toyota vehicles," Dec. 15, 2012.

Anderson, Antony F., "Case Study: NHTSA's Denial of Dr Raghavan's Petition to Investigate Sudden Acceleration in Toyota Vehicles Fitted With Electronic Throttles," IEEE Access, Apr. 21, 2016.

Anderson, Antony F., "Intermittent Electrical Contact Resistance as a Contributory Factor in the Loss of Automobile Speed Control Functional Integrity," IEEE Access, Apr. 9, 2014.

Anderson, Antony, "Sudden Acceleration/Surge Incident Brandon Street, Wellington NZ," May 9, 2012.

Ando, Toshihiro, Shibata, Masamitsu, Okada, Seiichi, and Namasuya, Yoshikazu, "Stress Analysis and Accelerated Evaluation of Tin Whisker under Thermal Shock Stress," Murata.

Arazna, Aneta, Koziol, Grazyna, and Steplewski, Wojciech, "Investigation of Tin Whiskers Formation," 2010 33rd International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, Warsaw, Poland, May 12-16, 2010, pp. 183-185.

Arendt, N., Baron, F., Benz, V., Letterer, M., Merkle, H., Schroeder, S., and Wessling, B., "A New Whisker-Reducing Immersion Tin Technology," CircuiTree , vol. 18 no. 1, pp. 10, 12, 14, Jan. 2005.

Arendt, N., Baron, F., Benz, V., Letterer, M., Merkle, H., Schroeder, S., Wessling, B., "A Superior Whisker-Reducing Immersion Tin Technology," OnBoard Technology, vol. xx no. xx, pp. 30-32, Oct. 2004.

Arnold, S. M., "A hidden cause of failure in electronic equipment: Metal Whiskers," Electrical Manufacturing, vol. xx no. x, pp. 110-114, Nov. 1954.

Arnold, S. M., and Koonce, S. Eloise, "Filamentary Growths on Metals at Elevated Temperatures," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 27 no. 8, pp. 964, 1956.

Arnold, S. M., "Repressing the Growth of Tin Whiskers," Plating, vol. 53 no. 1, pp. 16-19, Jan. 1966.

Arnold, S. M., "The Growth and Properties of Metal Whiskers," Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Convention of the American Electroplaters Society, Washington, June 17-21, 1956, pp. 26-31.

Arutyunov, K. Yu., Danilova, N. P., and Nikolaeva, A. A., "Galvanomagnetic properties of quasi-one-dimensional superconductors," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 76 no. 10, pp. 7139-7141, Nov. 15, 1994.

Asai, Tadashi, Kiga, Tomoya, Taniguchi, Yoshikuni, Morikawa, Hiroshi, and Sumiyama, Kenji, "Suppression of External-Stress-Induced Formation of Tin Whisker by Annealing of Electroplated Sn-Ag Alloy Films," Nippon Kinzoku Gakkaishi/ Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals, vol. 73 no. 11, pp. 823-832, Nov. 2009.

Ashworth, M. A., Haspel, D., Wu, L., Wilcox, G. D., and Mortimer, R. J., "An Investigation into the Effect of a Post-electroplating Electrochemical Oxidation Treatment on Tin Whisker Formation," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 44 no. 1, pp. 442-456, Jan. 2015.

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Chen, Min-Na, Ding, Shi-Jin, Sun, Qing-Qing, Zhang, Wei, David, and Wang, Li-Kang, "Effect of Pulse-Plated Nickel Barriers on Tin Whisker Growth for Pure Tin Solder Joints," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 37 no. 6, pp. 894-900, June 2008.

Chen, Wei-Hsun, Sarobol, Pylin, Holaday, John R., Handwerker, Carol A., and Blendell, John E., "Effect of crystallographic texture, anisotropic elasticity, and thermal expansion on whisker formation in b-Sn thin films," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 29 no. 2, pp. 197-206, Jan. 28, 2014.

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Zeng, Guang, Xue, Songbai, Gao, Lili, Zhang, Liang, Hu, Yuhua, and Lai, Zhongmin, "Interfacial microstructure and properties of Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni/Cu solder joint with rare earth Nd addition," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 509 no. 25, pp. 7152-7161, June 23, 2011.

Zeng, Guang, Xue, Songbai, Zhang, Liang, Gao, Lili, Lai, Zhongmin, and Luo, Jiadong, "Properties and microstructure of Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni solder bearing rare earth element Pr," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics , vol. 22 no. 8, pp. 1101-1108, Aug. 2011.

Zhang, Jinsong, and Zhang, Jianhua, "Estimation of whiskers growth on Sn coating of Cu-Leads in different accelerated tests," Advanced Materials Research, vol. 160-162, pp. 1575-1581, 2011.

Zhang, Jinsong, and Zhang, Jianhua, "Mechanism of whisker growth on pure Sn coating of Cu leads in the high temperature/humidity storage tests," Applied Mechanics and Materials , vol. 44-47, pp. 2691-2695, Dec. 2010.

Zhang, Junxiong, Xue, Songbai, Xue, Peng, and Liu, Shuang, "Thermodynamic reaction mechanism of the intermetallic compounds of SnxNdy and GaxNdy in soldered joint of Sn-9Zn-1Ga-0.5Nd," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 26 no. 5, pp. 3064-3068, May 2015.

Zhang, Liang, Yang, Fan, and Zhong, Su-juan, "Effect of Nd on whiskers growth behavior of SnAgCu solders in electronic packaging," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics , vol. 27 no. 9, pp. 9584-9588, Sept. 2016.

Zhang, Liang, Sun, Lei, Han, Ji-guang, and Guo, Yong-huan, "Sizes effect of CeSn3 on the whiskers growth of SnAgCuCe solder joints in electronic packaging," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 26 no. 8, pp. 6194-6197, Aug. 2015.

Zhang, Liang, Yang, Fan, and Zhong, Su-juan, "Whisker growth on SnAgCu-xPr solders in electronic packaging," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 27 no. 6, pp. 5618-5621, June 2016.

Zhang, Wan, and Schwager, Felix, "Effects of Lead on Tin Whisker Elimination," Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 153 no. 5, pp. C337-C343, 2006.

Zhang, Wan, Egli, Andre, Schwager, Felix, and Brown, Neil, "Investigation of Sn-Cu Intermetallic Compounds by AFM: New Aspects of the Role of Intermetallic Compounds in Whisker Formation," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing,", vol. 28 no. 1, pp. 85-93, Jan. 2005.

Zhang, Y., and Abys, J. A., "An Alternative Surface Finish for Tin/Lead solders - Pure Tin," Proceedings AESF SUR/FIN '96, Cleveland, OH, June 10-13, 1996, pp. 223-246.

Zhang, Y., Breck, G., Humiec, F., Murski, K., and Abys, A., "An Alternative Surface Finish for Tin/Lead Solders: Pure Tin," Surface Mount International Proceedings of the Technical Program, Volume II, San Jose, CA, Sept. 10-12, 1996, pp. 641-649.

Zhang, Y., Fan, C., Xu, C., Khaselev, O., and Abys, J. A., "Tin Whisker Growth - Substrate Effect Understanding CTE Mismatch and IMC Formation," Proceedings of the Technical Conference (CDROM) IPC/SMEMA Council APEX 2004 Conference, Anaheim, CA, Feb. 24-26, 2004, pp. S27-2-1-S27-2-20.

Zhang, Y., Fan, C., Xu, C., Khaselev, O., and Abys, J. A., "Tin Whisker Growth - Substrate Effect: Understanding CTE Mismatch and IMC Formation," CircuiTree, vol. 17 no. 6, pp. xx, June 2004.

Zhang, Yun, "Can Thin Sn over Ni be an Answer to Tin Whiskers?," IPC/Soldertec Global 3rd International Conference on Lead Free Electronics, Barcelona, Spain, June 7-10, 2005, pp. xx-xx.

Zhang, Yun, Xu, Chen, Fan, Chonglun, and Abys, Joseph A., "Tin Whisker Growth and Prevention," Journal of SMT, vol. 13 no. 4, pp. 1-9, Oct. 2000.

Zhang, Yun, Xu, Chen, Fan, Chonglun, Vysotskaya, Anna, and Abys, Joseph A., "Understanding Whisker Phenomenon - Part I: Growth Rates," Electroplating Chemicals and Services.

Zhao, Fang, Wang, Qian, and Lee, Taekoo, "Characteristics of Tin Whisker Growth on Matte Tin Surface Finishes by Acceleration Conditions," 8th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, Shanghai, China, Aug. 14-17, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

Zhao, Jie-Hao, Su, Peng, Ding, Min, Chopin, Sheila, and Ho, Paul S., "Microstructure-Based Stress Modeling of Tin Whisker Growth," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 29 no. 4, pp. 265-273, Oct. 2006.

Zhao, Jie-Hua, Su, Peng, Ding, Min, Chopin, Sheila, and Ho, Paul S., "Microstructure-Based Stress Modeling of Tin Whisker Growth," 2005 Proceedings 55th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, Orlando, FL, May 31-June 3, 2005, pp. 137-144.

Zhao, Mengke, Hao, Hu, Xu, Guangchen, Sun, Jia, Shi, Yaowu, and Guo, Fu, "Fundamental Studies on Whisker Growth in Sn-based Solders," International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, Beijing, China, Aug. 10-13, 2009, pp. 585-588.

Zou, Shiwen, Li, Xiaogang, Dong, Chaofang, Ding, Kangkang, and Xiao, Kui, "Electrochemical migration, whisker formation, and corrosion behavior of printed circuit board under wet H2S environment," Electrochimica Acta , vol. 114, pp. 363-371, Dec. 30, 2013.


Web Pages on Tin Whiskers (revised 12/3/2015)

Please note: if a web page doesn't have a date, the date that I found it is in parentheses.

Martin, Holly, An Introduction to Tin Whiskers (before Feb. 24, 2009)

Hybrid Plastics Achieves a Milestone with Nanoscopic Materials for Suppression of Tin Whiskers from Lead-free Solders (before Feb. 24, 2009)

Lead Finish Material Candidates and Pros/Cons (before May 17, 2005)

Lead-Free Surface Finishes for Electronic Components: Tin Whisker Growth (before Oct. 2, 2012)

Metal Whiskers from Sn-Ag-Cu Alloy Systems (before July 14, 2008)

NASA Basic Info/FAQ (before Feb. 22, 2009)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Anecdote #1: 20 Years to Failure (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Anecdote #2: Tin Whiskers on Waveguide (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Anecdote #3: Field Failures Due to Tin Whiskers Breaking Loose from Matte Tin-Plated RF Enclosure Lids (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Anecdote #4- Tin Whiskers on Shield of GPS Units (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Anecdote #5: Field Failures Due to Tin Whiskers on Circuit Breaker Contacts (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Basic Info/FAQ (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 1 (before Apr. 15, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 2 (before Apr. 15, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 3 (before Feb. 25,2009)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 4 (before Apr. 15, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 5 (before Apr. 15, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 6: Simulation of Whisker Growth (before Apr. 15, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center GSFC Experiments (before Apr. 15, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Literature References: Tin Whisker Literature References (before Apr. 24, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Photo Gallery (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Photo of the Month (before Apr. 2, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Sn-Pb Whiskers (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Specification Language Related to Pure Tin (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Summary of Specification Language for Pure Tin (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Tin Whisker (and Other Metal Whisker) Homepage (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Whisker Failures (before Mar. 26, 2005)

Pb-free (Lead Free) Frequently Asked Questions (before Feb. 12, 2011)

Plating (before Feb. 12, 2011)

Preliminary Guidance for Optical Inspection for Metal Whiskers Dec. 10, 2007.

Pure Tin Plating Prohibition (before Feb. 22, 2009)

Sn Whisker (before Nov. 14, 2015)

Testing for Tin Whisker Growth (before Apr. 16, 2005)

The Trouble with Tin: Get the Lead Out! (before Fall 2000)

The Trouble with Tin: Get the Lead Out! (before Fall 2000)

Tin Whisker Alert 2008.

Perton, Marc, "Tin whisker" crisis threatens global electronic systems (before May 17, 2005)

Tin Whisker Mitigation - Adding Lead to Chip Size Components with Pure-Tin Terminals (before May 17, 2005)

Tin Whisker Summary (before Feb. 13, 2011)

Tin Whiskers (before Feb. 13, 2011)

Tin Whiskers (before Feb. 2, 2005)

Tin Whiskers 2004.

Tin Whiskers 2008.

Tin Whiskers "A New Problem" (before Feb. 22, 2009)

Tin whiskers causes and prevention 2008.

Tin Whiskers on Card Guides Nov. 21, 2009.

Brusse, Jay, Tin Whiskers on Lincoln's Beard, Nov. 25, 2009.

Tin Whiskers (Tech Tip #2) (before Apr. 30, 2005)

Tin Whiskers with Special Morphology July 14, 2008.

"What are Tin Whiskers?." (before Nov. 22, 2015)

"What Are Tin Whiskers?" (before Nov. 22, 2015)

What are Tin Whiskers? (before Apr. 24, 2005)

What Are Tin Whiskers? (before Feb. 24, 2009)

What's Inside Your PC? (before May 25, 2009)

Whisker growth over a 12 minute period (before Nov. 14, 2015)

Whisker growth over a 19 minute period (before Nov. 14, 2015)

Whisker (metallurgy) (before May 20, 2009)

"Will electronic equipment fail from tin-whisker shorts?," SourceESB, Feb. 9, 2005.


All Documents on Tin Whiskers in Reverse Chronological Order (revised 4/16/2017)

Please note: if a web page doesn't have a date, the date that I found it is in parentheses.

Articles In Press: 0 books, 0 theses, 3 papers, and 0 web pages on tin whiskers

Diyatmika, Wahyu, Chu, J. P., Yen, Y. W., Chang, W. Z., and Hsueh, C. H., "Thin film metallic glass as an underlayer for tin whisker mitigation: A room-temperature evaluation," Thin Solid Films, vol. xx, pp. xx-xx, xxxx.

Hillman, Dave, Wilcoxon, Ross, Lower, Nate, and Grossman, Dan, "Alkali Silicate Glass Coatings for Mitigating the Risks of Tin Whiskers," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, xxxx.

Horvath, Barbara, Illes, Balazs, Shinohara, Tadashi, and Harsanyi, Gabor, "Effects of Humidity on Tin Whisker Growth - Investigated on Ni and Ag Underplated Layer Construction," Thin Solid Films, vol. xxx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, xxxx.

2017: 0 books, 0 theses, 1 paper, and 0 web pages on tin whiskers

Sellers, Keith M., "Got Whiskers?," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 32 no. 1, pp. 92,94, Jan. 2017.

2016: 1 book, 0 theses, 28 papers, and 0 web pages on tin whiskers

Ashworth, Mark Andrew, and Dunn, Barrie, "An investigation of tin whisker growth over a 32-year period," Circuit World, vol. 42 no. 4, pp. 183-196, 2016.

Kato, Takahiko, Handwerker, Carol A., and Bath, Jasbir, Mitigating Tin Whisker Risks: Theory and Practice. Hoboken, NJ: IEEE Press, 2016. ISBN 9780470907238.

Shvydka, Diana, and Karpov, V. G., "Surface parameters determining a metal propensity for whiskers," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 119, pp. 085301-1-085301-8, 2016.

Hwang, Jennie S., "The Theory Behind Tin Whisker Phenomena, Part 5," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 31 no. 11, pp. 12,14, Nov. 2016.

Hwang, Jennie S., "The Theory Behind Tin Whisker Phenomena, Part 4," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 31 no. 9, pp. 12,14,16, Sept. 2016.

Pinsky, David, Hester, Tom, Touw, Anduin, and Hillman, Dave, "Mitigation of Pure Tin Risk by Tin-Lead SMT Reflow- Results of an Industry Round-Robin," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 31 no. 9, pp. 36,38-42,44-45, Sept. 2016.

Zhang, Liang, Yang, Fan, and Zhong, Su-juan, "Effect of Nd on whiskers growth behavior of SnAgCu solders in electronic packaging," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics , vol. 27 no. 9, pp. 9584-9588, Sept. 2016.

McKeown, S., Meschter, S., Snugovsky, P., Kennedy, J., Bagheri, Z., Keeping, J., Cho, J., Edwards, D., and Elsken, K., "Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) Nanoparticle enhanced conformal coating project: Coating modeling for tin whisker mitigation," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Sept. 7, 2016.

Meschter, Stephan, "Enabling Lead-free in the DoD through Risk Mitigation: Program Management and Systems Engineering Overview," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Aug. 24, 2016.

Wickham, Martin, Thomas, Owen, Clayton, Kate, Lewis, Adam, and Hunt, Chris, "How Good Are Conformal Coatings at Preventing Sn Whisker Failures?," National Physical Laboratory, July 20, 2016.

Zhang, Liang, Yang, Fan, and Zhong, Su-juan, "Whisker growth on SnAgCu-xPr solders in electronic packaging," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 27 no. 6, pp. 5618-5621, June 2016.

Landman, Bob, Davy, Gordon, and Fritz, Dennis, "Preventing Tin Whisker Growth Risk," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, June 15, 2016.

Smith, Steve, "Tin whisker captivation by the Whisker-Tough Magnum(TM) conformal coating," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, June 1, 2016.

Rollins, Bill, "Engineering Requirements for a Tin-Whisker-Risk-Controlling Conformal Coating to be used in a Missile," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, June 1, 2016.

Busek, David, Vavra, Jan, and Dusek, Karel, "Whisker growth and its dependence on substrate type and applied stress," 2016 39th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, Pilsen, Czech Republic, May 18-22, 2016, pp. 263-266.

Illes, Balazs, Skwarek, Agata, Krammer, Oliver, Medgyes, Balint, Horvath, Barbara, and Batorfi, Reka, "Tin Whisker Growth from Tin Thin Film," 2016 39th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, Pilsen, Czech Republic, May 18-22, 2016, pp. 173-178.

Stoyanov, Stoyan, Stewart, Paul, and Bailey, Chris, "Vulnerability Study of Hot Solder Dipped COTS Components," 2016 39th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, Pilsen, Czech Republic, May 18-22, 2016, pp. 193-198.

Pinsky, David, Hester, Tom, Touw, Anduin, and Hillman, Dave, "Mitigation of Pure Tin Risk by Tin-Lead SMT Reflow." Tin Whisker Group teleconference, May 18, 2016.

"Rationale for the Auger Studies," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, May 11, 2016.

Mahapatra, S. Das, Meinshausen, L., Bhassyvasantha, S., Yang, H., Banerjee, S., Majumdar, B. S., and Dutta, I., "Influence of Indium Addition on Whisker Growth in Electroplated Tin," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, May 11, 2016.

Chen, Hao, Lee, Hsin Yi, Ku, Ching Shun, and Wu, Albert T., "Evolution of residual stress and qualitative analysis of Sn whiskers with various microstructures," Journal of Materials Science, vol. 51 no. 7, pp. 3600-3606, Apr. 2016.

Kim, Sang Hoon, Hui, Kwun Nam, Kim, Yong-Jin, Lim, Tae-Soo, Yang, Dong-Yeol, Kim, Ki Bong, Kim, Young Ja, and Yang, Sangsun, "Oxidation resistant effects of Ag2S in Sn-Ag-Al solder: A mechanism for higher electrical conductivity and less whisker growth," Corrosion Science, vol. 105, pp. 25-35, Apr. 2016.

Xue, Peng, Wang, Ke-Hong, Zhou, Qi, Huang, Jun, Long, Wei-min, and Zhang, Qing-ke, "Effect of Nd on tin whisker growth in Sn-Zn soldered joint," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 27 no. 4, pp. 3742-3747, Apr. 2016.

Anderson, Antony F., "Case Study: NHTSA's Denial of Dr Raghavan's Petition to Investigate Sudden Acceleration in Toyota Vehicles Fitted With Electronic Throttles," IEEE Access, Apr. 21, 2016.

Wang, Fei, and Nestler, Britta, "Detachment of nanowires driven by capillarity," Scripta Materialia , vol. 113, pp. 167-170, Mar. 1, 2016.

Ma, Limin, Zuo, Yong, Liu, Sihan, Guo, Fu, Lee, Andre, and Subramanian, K. N., "Whisker growth behaviors in POSS-silanol modified Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu composite solders," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 657, pp. 400-407, Feb. 5, 2016.

Ma, Limin, Zuo, Yong, Liu, Sihan, and Guo, Fu, "Whisker Growth Behavior of Sn58Bi Solder Coatings Under Isothermal Aging," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 45 no. 1, pp. 44-50, Jan. 2016.

Meinshausen, L., Bhassyvasantha, S., Majumdar, B. S., and Dutta, I., "Influence of Indium Addition on Whisker Mitigation in Electroplated Tin Coatings on Copper Substrates," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 45 no. 1, pp. 791-801, Jan. 2016.

Pei, Fei, Bower, Allan F., and Chason, Eric, "Quantifying the Rates of Sn Whisker Growth and Plastic Strain Relaxation Using Thermally-Induced Stress," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 45 no. 1, pp. 21-29, Jan. 2016.

2015: 0 books, 0 theses, 50 papers, and 5 web pages on tin whiskers

Hom, Bance, and Winkler, Sandra, "History repeats itself in the form of matte tin," Advanced Packaging, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, ??. (2015)

Huang, Lin, Jian, Wei, Lin, Bing, Wen, Yuren, Gu, Lin, and Wang, Jiangyong, "Thermodynamic understanding of Sn whisker growth on the Cu surface in Cu(top)-Sn(bottom) bilayer system upon room temperature aging," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 117, pp. 215308-1-215308-8, 2015.

McKeown, Stephen A., Meschter, Stephan J., Snugovsky, Polina, and Kennedy, Jeffery, "SERDP Tin Whisker Testing and Modeling: Simplified Whisker Risk Model Development," SMTA Journal, vol. 28 no. 1, pp. 13-29, 2015.

Vasko, A. C., Warrell, G. R., Parsai, E. I., Karpov, V. G., and Shvydka, Diana, "Electron beam induced growth of tin whiskers," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 118, pp. 125301-1-125301-5, 2015.

Chen, Jie Shi, Ye, Cheng Hui, Chen, Jun Mei, Xu, Ji Jin, Yu, Chun, and Lu, Hao, "Sn whiskers mitigation by refining grains of Cu substrate during the room temperature exposure," Materials Letters, vol. 161, pp. 201-204, Dec. 15, 2015.

Chason, Eric, and Pei, Fei, "Sn whisker formation as a stress-induced nucleation and growth process," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Dec. 9, 2015.

Hwang, Jennie S., "A Look at the Theory behind Tin Whisker Phenomena, Part 3," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 30 no. 11, pp. 12,14-15, Nov. 2015.

Niraula, D., and Karpov, V. G., "The probabilistic distribution of metal whisker lengths," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 118 no. x, pp. 205301-1-205301-5, 2015.

Rohwer, Lauren E. S., and Martin, James E., "Platelet Composite Coatings for Tin Whisker Mitigation," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 44 no. 11, pp. 4424-4433, Nov. 2015.

"What are Tin Whiskers?." (before Nov. 22, 2015)

"What Are Tin Whiskers?" (before Nov. 22, 2015)

Sn Whisker (before Nov. 14, 2015)

Whisker growth over a 12 minute period (before Nov. 14, 2015)

Whisker growth over a 19 minute period (before Nov. 14, 2015)

Karpov, Victor, "Verifying the electrostatic theory of whiskers," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Nov. 11, 2015.

Chang, Jaewon, Kang, Sung K., Lee, Jae-Ho, Kim, Keun-Soo, and Lee, Hyuck Mo, "Recrystallization as a Growth Mechanism for Whiskers on Plastically Deformed Sn Films," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 44 no. 10, pp. 3486-3499, Oct. 2015.

Chason, Eric, and Pei, Fei, "Measuring the Stress Dependence of Nucleation and Growth Processes in Sn Whisker Formation," JOM, vol. 67 no. 10, pp. 2416-2424, Oct. 2015.

Illes, Balazs, Hurtony, Tamas, and Medgyes, Balint, "Effect of current load on corrosion induced tin whisker growth from SnAgCu solder alloys," Corrosion Science, vol. 99, pp. 313-319, Oct. 2015.

Vianco, P. T., Neilsen, M. K., Rejent, J. A., and Grant, R. P., "Validation of the Dynamic Recrystallization (DRX) Mechanism for Whisker and Hillock Growth on Sn Thin Films," Journal of Electronic Materials , vol. 44 no. 10, pp. 4012-4034, Oct. 2015.

Chason, Eric, and Pei, Fei, "Sn whisker formation as a stress-induced nucleation and growth process," The Latest Findings on Tin Whiskers in Electronics Webinar, Oct. 29, 2015, pp. xx-xx.

Handwerker, Carol, Blendell, John, Wang, Ying, Chen, Wei-Hsun, Sarobol, Pylin, Koppes, John, Pedigo, Aaron, Yoo, Byung-Gil, Phillipi, Bastian, Kraft, Oliver, Dehm, Gerhard, Williams, Maureen, Chatain, Dominique, and Curriotto, Stephano, "Stress Relaxation in Tin Films: Whisker Nucleation and Growth," The Latest Findings on Tin Whiskers in Electronics Webinar, Oct. 29, 2015, pp. xx-xx.

Osterman, Michael, "Tin Whisker Mitigation," The Latest Findings on Tin Whiskers in Electronics Webinar, Oct. 29, 2015, pp. xx-xx.

Snugovsky, Polina, "Issues and Whisker Mitigation for those Using SAC Solder and Tin Surface Finishes," The Latest Findings on Tin Whiskers in Electronics Webinar, Oct. 29, 2015, pp. xx-xx.

Batorfi, Reka, Illes, Balazs, and Krammer, Oliver, "Whisker Formation from SnAgCu Alloys and Tin Platings - Review on the Latest Results," 2015 IEEE 21st International Symposium for Design and Technology in Electronic Packaging, Brasov, Romania, Oct. 22-25, 2015, pp. 373-376.

McCulloch, J., Niraula, D., Grice, C. R., Warrell, G., Vasko, A., Irving, R., Georgiev, D., Borra, V., Karpov, V. G., Parsai, E. I., and Shvydka, D., "Electric field stimulated growth of Zn and Sn whiskers," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Oct. 21, 2015.

Snipes, E. K., Flowers, G. T., Lall, P., and Bozack, M. J., "Influence on Sn Whiskering of Controlled Bismuth Additions to Sputtered Sn Films," 2015 IEEE 61st Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, San Diego, CA, Oct. 11-14, 2015, pp. 54-58.

McKeown, S., Meschter, S., Snugovsky, P., Kennedy, J., Bagheri, Z., Keeping, J., Cho, J., Edwards, D., and Elsken, K., "Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) Nanoparticle enhanced conformal coating project: Coating modeling for tin whisker mitigation," Proceedings of SMTA International, Rosemont, IL, Sept. 27-Oct. 1, 2015, pp. xx-xx.

Hester, Thomas, and Pinsky, David, "Tin Whisker Self-Mitigation in Surface Mount Components Attached with Leaded Solder Alloys," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), pp. 70,72-74,76-78,80 Sept. 2015.

Liu, Ting, Ding, Dongyan, Hu, Yu, and Gong, Yihua, "Tin whisker growth on electroplated Sn multilayers," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 26 no. 9, pp. 6411-6418, Sept. 2015.

Zhang, Liang, Sun, Lei, Han, Ji-guang, and Guo, Yong-huan, "Sizes effect of CeSn3 on the whiskers growth of SnAgCuCe solder joints in electronic packaging," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 26 no. 8, pp. 6194-6197, Aug. 2015.

Yao, Z. X., Yin, L. M., Wang, G., Tian, X. K., and Yao, Z. Y., "The effect of current stressing and external loading on the growth of tin whiskers," 2015 16th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, Changsha, China, Aug. 11-14, 2015, pp. 734-736.

Hwang, Jennie S., "The Theory Behind Tin Whisker Phenomena, Part 2," Surface Mount Technology, vol. 30 no. 7, pp. 8,10-11, July 2015.

Meschter, Stephan J., Snugovsky, Polina, Kennedy, Jeffery, Bagheri, Zohreh, and Kosiba, Eva, "Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) Tin Whisker Testing and Modeling: Thermal Cycling Testing," SMTA Journal, vol. 28 no. 2, pp. 15-35, June 2015.

Al-Salman, Rihab, Sommer, Heino, Brezesinski, Torsten, and Janek, Jurgen, "Template-Free Electrochemical Synthesis of High Aspect Ratio Sn Nanowires in Ionic Liquids: A General Route to Large-Area Metal and Semimetal Nanowire Arrays?," Chemistry of Materials, vol. 27 no. 11, pp. 3830-3837, June 9, 2015.

Hwang, Jennie, "The Theory Behind Tin Whisker Phenomena, Part 1," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 30 no. 5, pp. 8,10-11, May 2015.

Zhang, Junxiong, Xue, Songbai, Xue, Peng, and Liu, Shuang, "Thermodynamic reaction mechanism of the intermetallic compounds of SnxNdy and GaxNdy in soldered joint of Sn-9Zn-1Ga-0.5Nd," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 26 no. 5, pp. 3064-3068, May 2015.

Illes, Balazs, and Fehervari, Norbert, "Relation Between Tin Whiskering Ability Sn/Ag/Cu Solder Alloys and Current Load," 2015 38th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology , Eger, Hungary, May 6-10, 2015, pp. 173-178.

Doudrick, Kyle, Chinn, Jeff, Williams, Jason, Chawla, Nikhilesh, and Rykaczewski, Konrad, "Rapid method for testing efficacy of nano-engineered coatings for mitigating tin whisker growth," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 55 no. 5, pp. 832-837, Apr. 2015.

He, A., and Ivey, D. G., "Microstructural study of Sn films electrodeposited on Cu substrates: Sn whiskers and Cu6Sn5 precipitates," Journal of Materials Science, vol. 50 no. 7, pp. 2944-2959, Apr. 2015.

Jagtap, Piyush, and Kumar, Praveen, "Manipulating Crystallographic Texture of Sn Coatings by Optimization of Electrodeposition Process Conditions to Suppress Growth of Whiskers," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 44 no. 4, pp. 1206-1219, Apr. 2015.

Karpov, V. G., "Understanding the movements of metal whiskers (paper)," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Apr. 8 & 15, 2015.

Karpov, V. G., "Understanding the movements of metal whiskers (presentation)," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Apr. 8 & 15, 2015.

Stein, J., Tineo, C. A. Cordova, Welzel, U., Huege, W., and Mittemeijer, E. J., "Microstructural Development and Possible Whiskering Behavior of Thin Sn Films Electrodeposited on Cu(Zn) Substrates," Journal of Electronic Materials , vol. 44 no. 3, pp. 886-894, Mar. 2015.

Stein, J., Welzel, U., Leineweber, A., Huegel, W., and Mittemeijer, E. J., "The crystallographic growth directions of Sn whiskers," Acta Materialia , vol. 86, pp. 102-109, Mar. 2015.

Hillman, David, and Wilcoxon, Ross, "Tin Whisker Risk Assessment of a Tin Surface Finished Connector," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 30 no. 2, pp. 68,70-72,74-76,78-79, Feb. 2015.

Holtzer, Mitch, "Minimizing the Risk of Tin Whisker Formation in Lead-Free Assemblies," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 30 no. 2, pp. 80,82, Feb. 2015.

Karpov, V. G., "Electrostatic Mechanism of Nucleation and Growth of Metal Whiskers," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 30 no. 2, pp. 28,30-32,34-36,38-40,42-45, Feb. 2015.

Lasky, Ronald C., "Risk and Mitigation for Tin Whiskers and Tin Pest," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 30 no. 2, pp. 18,20-22,24,26-27, Feb. 2015.

Osterman, Michael, "Tin Whiskers Remain a Concern," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 30 no. 2, pp. 50,52-54, Feb. 2015.

Sentz, Scott, "The Unpredictability of Tin Whiskers Endures," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 30 no. 2, pp. 62,64-65, Feb. 2015.

Skwarek, A., Witek, K., Pluska, M., and Czerwinski, A., "Tin Whisker Growth on the Surface of Tin-Rich Lead-Free Alloys," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 30 no. 2, pp. 56,58-60, Feb. 2015.

Kim, Gye Hyun, and Thompson, Carl V., "Effect of surface energy anisotropy on Rayleigh-like solid-state dewetting and nanowire stability," Acta Materialia, vol. 84, pp. 190-201, Feb. 1, 2015.

Ashworth, M. A., Haspel, D., Wu, L., Wilcox, G. D., and Mortimer, R. J., "An Investigation into the Effect of a Post-electroplating Electrochemical Oxidation Treatment on Tin Whisker Formation," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 44 no. 1, pp. 442-456, Jan. 2015.

Ashworth, M. A., Wilcox, G. D., Higginson, R. L., Heath, R. J., Liu, C., and Mortimer, R. J., "The effect of electroplating parameters and substrate material on tin whisker formation," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 55 no. 1, pp. 180-191, Jan. 2015.

Wang, Ying, Yoo, Byung-Gil, Phillipi, Bastian, Handwerker, Carol, Blendell, John, Kraft, Oliver, and Dehm, Gerhard, "Stress Relaxation in Tin Films during Cyclic Bending and Thermal Cycling," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Jan. 28 & Feb. 4, 2015.

2014: 0 books, 0 theses, 60 papers, and 0 web pages on tin whiskers

Dunn, Barrie D., and Mozdzen, Grazyna, "Tin Oxide Coverage on Tin Whisker surfaces, Measurements and Implications for Electronic Circuits," Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 26 no. 3, pp. xx-xx, 2014.

Chason, E., Pei, F., Briant, C. L., Kesari, H., and Bower, A. F., "Significance of Nucleation Kinetics in Sn Whisker Formation," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 43 no. 12, pp. 4435-4441, Dec. 2014.

Illes, Balazs, and Horvath, Barbara, "Tin whisker growth from micro-alloyed SAC solders in corrosive climate," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 616, pp. 116-121, Dec. 15, 2014.

Pei, F., Briant, C. L., Kesari, H., Bower, A. F., and Chason, E., "Kinetics of Sn whisker nucleation using thermally induced stress," Scripta Materialia, vol. 93, pp. 16-19, Dec. 15, 2014.

Eckold, P., Niewa, R., and Hugel, W., "Texture of electrodeposited tin layers and its influence on their corrosion behavior," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 54 no. 11, pp. 2578-2585, Nov. 2014.

Meschter, S., Snugovsky, P., Bagheri, Z., Kosiba, E., Romansky, M., Kennedy, J., Snugovsky, L., and Perovic, D., "Whisker Formation on SAC305 Soldered Assemblies," JOM, vol. 66 no. 11, pp. 2320-2333, Nov. 2014.

Qiang, Lei, and Huang, Zaixing, "A physical model and analysis for whisker growth caused by chemical intermetallic reaction," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 54 no. 11, pp. 2494-2500, Nov. 2014.

Shilyaeva, Yulia, Gavrilov, Sergey, and Matyna, Larisa, "Melting of indium, tin, and zinc nanowires embedded in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide," Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 118 no. 2, pp. 937-942, Nov. 2014.

Stein, J., Rehm, S., Welzel, U., Huegel, W., and Mittemeijer, E. J., "The Role of Silver in Mitigation of Whisker Formation on Thin Tin Films," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 43 no. 11, pp. 4308-4316, Nov. 2014.

Meschter, Stephan, Snugovsky, Polina, Kennedy, Jeff, Bagheri, Zohreh, and Kosiba, Eva, "Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) Tin Whisker Testing and Modeling: Tin Whisker Growth on SAC305 Assemblies and Risk Modeling," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Nov. 12, 2014.

Vakanas, G. P., Vandecasteele, B., Schaubroek, D., De Messemaeker, J., Willems, G., Ashworth, M. A., Wilcox, G. D., and De Wolf, I., "Sn whisker evaluations in 3D microbumped structures," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 54 no. 9-10, pp. 1982-1987, Sept.-Oct. 2014.

Bush, Peter, Galyon, George, Handwerker, Carol, Osenbach, John, Parker, Richard, Reynolds, Heidi, Schroeder, Valeska, Smetana, Joseph, Su, Peng, Williams, Maureen, and Woodrow, Tom, "iNEMI Tin Whisker Projects: Test Development, Risk Mitigation, and Fundamental Theory Development," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Oct. 22, 2014.

Vasko, A., and Karpov, V., "Rapid Growth of Whiskers in Evaporated Tin Films Under Influence of Electric Field," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Oct. 15, 2014.

Schetty, Rob, "Effects of Electrodeposited Matte Tin Crystal Orientation and Grain Structure on Tin Whisker Growth Propensity Using Stress-Inducing Test Methods," 2014 IEEE 60th Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, New Orleans, LA, Oct. 12-15, 2014, pp. xx-xx.

Snipes, E. K., Flowers, G. T., Lall, P., and Bozack, M. J., "Impact of Thermal Cycling and Background Gas Environment on Tin Whiskering," 2014 IEEE 60th Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, New Orleans, LA, Oct. 12-15, 2014, pp. xx-xx.

Cho, Junghyun, Meschter, Stephan J., Maganty, Suraj, Starkey, Dale, Gomez, Mario, Edwards, David G., Ekin, Abdullah, Elsken, Kevin, Keeping, Jason, Snugovsky, Polina, Kennedy, Jeff, and Romansky, Marianne, "Polyurethane Conformal Coatings Filled with Hard Nanoparticles for Tin Whisker Mitigation," SMTAnews & Journal of Surface Mount Technology , vol. 27 no. 3, pp. 15-21, July-Sept. 2014.

Hwang, Jennie S., "Tin Whiskers, Part 6: Preventive and Mitigating Measures - Strategy and Tactics," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 29 no. 9, pp. 12,14-15, Sept. 2014.

Mahan, Kenny, Sun, Yong, Han, Bongtae, Han, Sungwon, and Osterman, Mike, "Adhesion and Puncture Strength of Polyurethane Coating Used to Mitigate Tin Whisker Growth," Journal of Electronic Packaging, vol. 136 no. 3, pp. 031004-1-031004-7, Sept. 2014.

Seelig, Karl, and O'Neil, Tim, "Tin Whisker Study Conclusions," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 31 no. 9, pp. 52-54, Sept. 2014.

Su, Chien-Hao, Chen, Hao, Lee, Hsin-Yi, Liu, Cheng Yi, Ku, Ching-Shun, and Wu, Albert T., "Kinetic Analysis of Spontaneous Whisker Growth on Pre-treated Surfaces with Weak Oxide," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 43 no. 9, pp. 3290-3295, Sept. 2014.

Xue, Peng, Xue, Song-bai, Shen, Yi-Fu, Long, Fei, and Zhu, Hong, "Mechanism of Reaction Between Nd and Ga in Sn-Zn-0.5Ga-xNd Solder," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 43 no. 9, pp. 3404-3410, Sept. 2014.

Xue, Peng, Xue, Song-bai, Shen, Yi-fu, Long, Fei, and Zhu, Hong, "Wettability and interfacial whiskers of Sn-9Zn-0.5Ga-0.08Nd solder with Sn, SnBi and Au/Ni coatings," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 25 no. 8, pp. 3520-3525, Aug. 2014.

Karpov, Victor, "Electrostatic Theory of Metal Whiskers," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Aug. 27 & Sept. 3, 2014.

Hao, Hu, He, Hongwen, and Lu, Yuan, "Study of Tin Whisker Growth Accelerated by Rare Earth Phase and the Mechanism of Tin Whisker Growth," 2014 15th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, Chengdu, China, Aug. 12-15, 2014, pp. 1120-1126.

He, Hongwen, Cao, Liqiang, Hao, Hu, Ma, Limin, and Guo, Fu, "Whisker growth in the crack region of the cathode interface during current stressing process in lead-free solder joints," 2014 15th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, Chengdu, China, Aug. 12-15, 2014, pp. 1491-1494.

Liu, Ting, Ding, Dongyan, Hu, Yu, and Gong, Yihua, "Effect of Interfacial Reaction on Tin Whisker Formation of Sn/Ni Films Deposited on Copper Lead-frame," 2014 15th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, Chengdu, China, Aug. 12-15, 2014, pp. 1005-1009.

Yao, Z. X., Yin, L. M., Lu, Y. H., gang, W., Chen, Z. G., and Yao, Z. X., "Acceleration of the growth of tin whisker by thermal aging and external tension," 2014 15th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, Chengdu, China, Aug. 12-15, 2014, pp. 1096-1099.

Yao, Z. X., Yin, L. M., Zhang, L. P., Zhou, J., and Yao, Z. X., "The effect of coating thickness and external force on the growth of tin whisker," 2014 15th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, Chengdu, China, Aug. 12-15, 2014, pp. 1100-1103.

Czerwinski, A., Skwarek, A., Pluska, M., Ratajczak, J., and Witek, K., "Whisker Growth in Tin Alloys on Glass-Epoxy Laminate," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 29 no. 7, pp. 30,32,34-36,38-39, July 2014.

Gupta, Abhishek, "Hard-Won Knowledge Mitigates Effects Of Tin Whiskers," Electronic Design, vol. 62 no. 7, pp. 35-38, July 2014.

Hwang, Jennie S., "Tin Whiskers: Capsulization," Surface Mount Technology (SMT) , vol. 29 no. 7, pp. 16,18-22,24-26,28-29, July 2014.

Seelig, Karl, and O'Neill, Tim, "Can the Right Alloy Prevent Tin Whisker Formation?," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 31 no. 7, pp. 40-41, July 2014.

Woody, Linda, and Fox, William, "Tin Whisker Risk Management by Conformal Coating," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 29 no. 7, pp. 40,42-44,46-48,50,52-58, July 2014.

Xue, Peng, Xue, Song-bai, Shen, Yi-fu, and Zhu, Hong, "Inhibiting the growth of Sn whisker in Sn-9Zn lead-free solder by Nd and Ga," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 25 no. 6, pp. 2671-2675, June 2014.

Hwang, Jennie S., "Tin Whiskers, Part 5: Impact of Testing Conditions," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 29 no. 5, pp. 12,14-15, May 2014.

Karpov, V. G., "Electrostatic Theory of Metal Whiskers," Physical Review Applied , vol. 1 no. 4, pp. 044001-1-0044001-13, May 2014.

Seelig, Karl, and O'Neill, Tim, "Tin Whisker Revelations," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 31 no. 5, pp. 71-72, May 2014.

Cho, Junghyun, Meschter, Stephan J., Maganty, Suraj, Starkey, Dale, Gomez, Mario, Edwards, David G., Ekin, Abdullah, Elsken, Kevin, Keeping, Jason, Snugovsky, Polina, Kennedy, Jeff, and Romansky, Marianne, "Polyurethane Conformal Coatings Filled with Hard Nanoparticles for Tin Whisker Mitigation," International Conference on Soldering & Reliability 2014, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 13-15, 2014, pp. xx-xx.

McKeown, Stephen A., Meschter, Stephan J., Snugovsky, Polina, and Kennedy, Jeffery, "SERDP Tin Whisker Testing and Modeling: Simplified Whisker Risk Model Development," International Conference on Soldering & Reliability 2014, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 13-15, 2014, pp. xx-xx.

Meschter, Stephan, Snugovsky, Polina, Kennedy, Jeff, Bagheri, Zohreh, and Kosiba, Eva, "Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) Tin Whisker Testing and Modeling: Thermal Cycling Testing," International Conference on Soldering & Reliability 2014, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 13-15, 2014, pp. xx-xx.

Illes, Balazs, and Horvath, Barbara, "Tin Whisker Growth from Low Ag Content Micro-Alloyed SAC Solders," Proceedings of the 2014 37th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, Dresden, Germany, May 7-11, 2014, pp. 152-157.

Placek, Martin, Dusek, Karel, and Urbanek, Jan, "Whiskers Growth on Thick Tin Layers and Various Types of Surfaces," Proceedings of the 2014 37th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, Dresden, Germany, May 7-11, 2014, pp. 193-197.

Stoyanov, Stoyan, Dabek, Alexander, and Bailey, Chris, "Hot Nitrogen Deballing of Ball Grid Arrays," Proceedings of the 2014 37th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, Dresden, Germany, May 7-11, 2014, pp. 44-49.

Ashworth, Mark A., Wilcox, Geoffrey D., Higginson, Rebecca L., Heath, Richard J., and Liu, Changqing, "An Investigation into Zinc Diffusion and Tin Whisker Growth for Electroplated Tin Deposits on Brass," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 43 no. 4, pp. 1005-1016, Apr. 2014.

Elbasiony, A. M. R., Zein El Abedin, S., and Endres, F., "Electrochemical synthesis of freestanding tin nanowires from ionic liquids," Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, vol. 18 no. 4, pp. 951-957, Apr. 2014.

Singh, S. S., Sarkar, R., Xie, H.-X., Mayer, C., Rajagopalan, J., and Chawla, N., "Tensile Behavior of Single-Crystal Tin Whiskers," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 43 no. 4, pp. 978-982, Apr. 2014.

Wang, Jing, Ashworth, Mark A., and Wilcox, Geoffrey D., "An Investigation Into the Role of Lead as a Suppressant for Tin Whisker Growth in Electronics," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, vol. 4 no. 4, pp. 727-740, Apr. 2014.

Anderson, Antony F., "Intermittent Electrical Contact Resistance as a Contributory Factor in the Loss of Automobile Speed Control Functional Integrity," IEEE Access, Apr. 9, 2014.

Munson, Terry, "Tin Whiskering on PCBA Capacitors in Storage (Inside ESD Bag, Inside a Sealed Cardboard Box)," Foresite. (before Apr. 3, 2014)

Tsujimoto, Masanobu, "Study of tin whisker inhibiting systems Controlling the copper substrate roughness and controlling the tin deposit crystal structure," IPC Symposium on Tin Whiskers, pp. xx-xx. (before Apr. 3, 2014)

Hwang, Jennie S., "Tin Whiskers, Part 4: Causes and Contributing Factors," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 29 no. 3, pp. 12-16, Mar. 2014.

Li, Qingqian, Chan, Y. C., and Chen, Zhong, "Tin whiskers growth of SnAgIn solder on Kovar substrate with Au/Ni plating," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 25 no. 3, pp. 1222-1227, Mar. 2014.

Wang, Ying, Blendell, John E., and Handwerker, Carol A., "Evolution of tin whiskers and subsiding grains in thermal cycling," Journal of Materials Science, vol. 49 no. 3, pp. 1099-1113, Feb. 2014.

Chang, Jaewon, Kang, Sung K., Lee, Jae-Ho, Kim, Keun-Soo, and Lee, Hyuck Mo, "Investigation of Sn Whisker Growth in Electroplated Sn and Sn-Ag as a Function of Plating Variables and Storage Conditions," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 43 no. 1, pp. 259-269, Jan. 2014.

George, Elviz, and Pecht, Michael, "Tin whisker analysis of an automotive engine control unit," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 54 no. 1, pp. 214-219, Jan. 2014.

Jo, Jung-Lae, Nagao, Shijo, Hamasaki, Kyoko, Tsujimoto, Masanobu, Sugahara, Tohru, and Suganuma, Katsuaki, "Mitigation of Sn Whisker Growth by Small Bi Additions," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 43 no. 1, pp. 1-8, Jan. 2014.

Liu, Sihan, Ma, Limin, Shu, Yutian, Subramanian, K. N., Lee, Andre, and Guo, Fu, "Effects of POSS-Silanol Addition on Whisker Formation in Sn-Based Pb-Free Electronic Solders," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 43 no. 1, pp. 26-32, Jan. 2014.

Pei, Fei, and Chason, Eric, "In Situ Measurement of Stress and Whisker/Hillock Density During Thermal Cycling of Sn Layers," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 43 no. 1, pp. 80-87, Jan. 2014.

Yeh, Min-Chi, Li, Jyun Lin, Lo, Pei Jen, Yu, Rick, Yu, Cheng-Fu, and Hsieh, Ker-Chang, "Corrosion behavior of pure tin deposit under 55 C/85 % RH reliability test," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 25 no. 1, pp. 317-322, Jan. 2014.

Chen, Wei-Hsun, Sarobol, Pylin, Holaday, John R., Handwerker, Carol A., and Blendell, John E., "Effect of crystallographic texture, anisotropic elasticity, and thermal expansion on whisker formation in b-Sn thin films," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 29 no. 2, pp. 197-206, Jan. 28, 2014.

2013: 0 books, 1 thesis, 53 papers, and 0 web pages on tin whiskers

Diyatmika, Wahyu, Chu, Jinn P., Yen, Y. W., and Hsueh, C. H., "Sn whisker mitigation by a thin metallic-glass underlayer in Cu-Sn," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 103, pp. 241912-1-241912-4, 2013.

Dunn, Barrie, Turner, Ian, and Barnes, Cathy, "A study into the re-processing of pure tin termination finishes into tin-lead," Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 25 no. 4, pp. xx-xx, 2013.

Ye, Huan, Xue, Songbai, Chen, Cheng, and Li, Yang, "Growth behaviors of tin whisker in RE-doped Sn-Zn-Ga solder," Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 25 no. 3, pp. 139-144, 2013.

Zou, Shiwen, Li, Xiaogang, Dong, Chaofang, Ding, Kangkang, and Xiao, Kui, "Electrochemical migration, whisker formation, and corrosion behavior of printed circuit board under wet H2S environment," Electrochimica Acta , vol. 114, pp. 363-371, Dec. 30, 2013.

Hwang, Jennie S., "Tin Whiskers: Concerns and Potential Impact," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 28 no. 11, pp. 12,14-15, Nov. 2013.

Horvath, Barbara, Shinohara, Tadashi, and Illes, Balazs, "Corrosion properties of tin-copper alloy coatings in aspect of tin whisker growth," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 577, pp. 439-444, Nov. 15, 2013.

Lasky, Ronald C., "Tin Whiskers 101," Medical Electronics Symposium 2013 Proceedings , Milpitas, CA, Nov. 12-13, 2013, pp. xx-xx.

Gupta, Abhishek, "Don't Let Tin Whiskers Destroy Your Design," Electronic Design, vol. 61 no. 13, pp. 63-66, Nov. 7, 2013.

Chawla, Nik, "In situ Mechanical Testing of Sn Whiskers," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Nov. 6, 2013.

Jo, Jung-Lae, Nagao, Shijo, Sugahara, Tohru, Tsujimoto, Masanobu, and Suganuma, Katsuaki, "Thermal stress driven Sn whisker growth: in air and in vacuum," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 24 no. 10, pp. 3897-3904, Oct. 2013.

Nishimura, Tetsuro, "Pushing the Limits of Lead-Free Soldering," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 28 no. 10, pp. 12,14-16,18-20,22,24,26, Oct. 2013.

Sarobol, P., Wang, Y., Chen, W. H., Pedigo, A. E., Koppes, J. P., Blendell, J. E., and Handwerker, C. A., "A Predictive Model for Whisker Formation Based on Local Microstructure and Grain Boundary Properties," JOM, vol. 65 no. 10, pp. 1350-1361, Oct. 2013.

Sentz, Scott, "Fusion Processing of Surface Mount Components to Mitigate Tin Whiskers," Microwave Journal, vol. 56 no. 10, pp. 144,146,148,150,152, Oct. 2013.

Diyatmika, Wahyu, Chu, J. P., and Yen, Y. W., "Effects of Annealing on Sn Whisker Formation: Role of Cu Alloy Seed Layer," 2013 8th International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, Oct. 22-25, 2013, pp. 319-322.

Cable, Alan, and Cox, Roger, "Lead Tinning Requirements for the 21st Century," SMTA International 2013 Conference Proceedings, Fort Worth, TX, Oct. 13-17, 2013, pp. 577-582.

Hwang, Jennie S., "Tin Whiskers: Phenomena and Observations," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 28 no. 9, pp. 12-13, Sept. 2013.

Snipes, E. K., Flowers, G.,T., Lall, P., and Bozack, M. J., "Role of Incorporated Hydrogen and Sputtered Grain Size on Tin Whiskering," 2013 IEEE 59th Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Newport, RI, Sept. 22-25, 2013, pp. xx-xx.

Jo, Jung-Lae, Kim, Keun-Soo, Sugahara, Tohru, Nagao, Shijo, Hamasaki, Kyoko, Tsujimoto, Masanobu, and Suganuma, Katsuaki, "Least lead addition to mitigate tin whisker for ambient storage," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 24 no. 8, pp. 3108-3115, Aug. 2013.

Stoyanov, Stoyan, Bailey, Chris, Alam, M. O., Yin, Chunyan, Best, Chris, Tollafield, Peter, Crawford, Rob, Parker, Mike, and Scott, Jim, "Modelling methodology for thermal analysis of hot solder dip process," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 53 no. 8, pp. 1055-1067, Aug. 2013.

Liu, Sihan, Ma, Limin, Shu, Yutian, Zuo, Yong, and Guo, Fu, "Effects of POSS-Silanol Addition on the Whisker Formation in Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu Pb-Free Solder," 2013 14th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, Dalian, China, Aug. 11-14, 2013, pp. 765-768.

Liu, Ting, Ding, Dongyan, Hu, Yu, and Gong, Yihua, "Tin Whisker Growth on Electroplating Sn Bilayer," 2013 14th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, Dalian, China, Aug. 11-14, 2013, pp. 931-936.

Horvath, Barbara, "Influence of copper diffusion on the shape of whiskers grown on bright tin layers," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 53 no. 7, pp. 1009-1020, July 2013.

Bin, Zhou, Zhonghua, Wan, Xunping, Li, and Yun-fei, En, "Research on Tin Whisker Growth of Pure Tin Plating of Different Lead Substrates," 2013 20th IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits, Suzhou, China, July 15-19, 2013, pp. 611-614.

Sarobol, Pylin, Effects of Local Film Properties on the Nucleation and Growth of Tin Whiskers and Hillocks. Ph. D. Thesis for Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, May 2013.

Hwang, Jennie S., "Tin Whiskers: Clarity First," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 28 no. 5, pp. 12,14,16, May 2013.

Illes, Balazs, and Horvath, Barbara, "Whiskering behaviour of immersion tin surface coating," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 53 no. 5, pp. 755-760, May 2013.

Wickham, Martin, "The Attraction of Sn Whiskers," 4th Electronic Materials and Assembly Processes for Space (EMPS) Workshop, Aalborg, Denmark, May 29, 2013.

Kang, Sung K., Chang, Jaewon, Lee, Jae-Ho, Kim, Keun-Soo, and Lee, Hyuck Mo, "Plastic Deformation Effect on Sn Whisker Growth in Electroplated Sn and Sn-Ag Solders," 2013 IEEE 63rd Electronic Components and Technology Conference , Las Vegas, NV, May 28-31, 2013, pp. 1018-1023.

Sarobol, P., Koppes, J. P., Chen, W. H., Su, P., Blendell, J. E., and Handwerker, C. A., "Recrystallization as a nucleation mechanism for whiskers and hillocks on thermally cycled Sn-alloy solder films," Materials Letters, vol. 99, pp. 76-80, May 15, 2013.

Cho, Junghyun, Meschter, Stephan J., Maganty, Suraj, Starkey, Dale, Gomez, Mario, Edwards, David G., Ekin, Abdullah, Elsken, Kevin, Keeping, Jason, Snugovsky, Polina, and Kennedy, Jeff, "Characterization of Hybrid Conformal Coatings Used for Mitigating Tin Whisker Growth," International Conference on Soldering & Reliability 2013 Proceedings, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 14-17, 2013, pp. xx-xx.

Meschter, Stephan, Snugovsky, Polina, Kennedy, Jeff, Bagheri, Zohreh, and Kosiba, Eva, "SERDP Tin Whisker Testing and Modeling: High Temperature/High Humidity Conditions," International Conference on Soldering & Reliability 2013 Proceedings, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 14-17, 2013, pp. xx-xx.

Tsujimoto, Masanobu, Hashimoto, Shigeo, Kiso, Masayuki, Ikumoto, Raihei, Kano, Toshikazu, Kanamori, Genki, Gudeczauskas, Don, and Milad, George, "The Elimination of Whiskers from Electroplated Tin," International Conference on Soldering & Reliability 2013 Proceedings, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 14-17, 2013, pp. xx-xx.

Chason, Eric, "Correlating Whisker/Hillock Growth with Compressive Stress in Sn during Thermal Cycling," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, May 8, 2013.

Pei, Fei, and Chason, Eric, "Correlating Whisker/Hillock Growth with Compressive Stress in Sn during Thermal Cycling," Tin Whisker Group Teleconference, May 8, 2013.

Ye, Huan, Xue, Songbai, and Pecht, Michael, "Effects of thermal cycling on rare earth (Pr)-induced Sn whisker/hillock growth," Materials Letters, vol. 98, pp. 78-81, May 1, 2013.

Hillman, Craig, "What's the secret to tin whiskers?," Global SMT and Packaging , vol. 13 no. 4, pp. 38-39,41, Apr. 2013.

Yeh, T. K., Lin, K. L., and Mohanty, U. S., "Effect of Ag on the Microstructure of Sn-8.5Zn-xAg-0.01Al-0.1Ga Solders Under High-Temperature and High-Humidity Conditions," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 42 no. 4, pp. 616-627, Apr. 2013.

Montgomery, Jeff, "AEM, Inc.," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Apr. 24, 2013.

Li, Ruying, Zhang, Yong, and Sun, Xueliang, "Self-assembly synthesis and mechanism investigation of branched core-shell hybrids of tin nanowires and carbon nanotubes," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 28 no. 7, pp. 969-975, Apr. 14, 2013.

Larson, Kent, "Increasing Electronics Reliability With Conformal Coatings," Design News, vol. 68 no. 3, pp. 36-38, Mar. 2013.

Susan, Donald, Michael, Joseph, Grant, Richard P., Mckenzie, Bonnie, and Yelton, W. Graham, "Morphology and Growth Kinetics of Straight and Kinked Tin Whiskers," Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, vol. 44 no. 3, pp. 1485-1496, Mar. 2013.

Sarobol, Pylin, Chen, Wei-Hsun, Pedigo, Aaron E., Su, Peng, Blendell, John E., and Handwerker, Carol A., "Effects of local grain misorientation and b-Sn elastic anisotropy on whisker and hillock formation," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 28 no. 5, pp. 747-756, Mar. 14, 2013.

Sarobol, Pylin, Chen, Wei-Hsun, Pedigo, Aaron E., Su, Peng, Blendell, John E., and Handwerker, Carol A., "Effects of local grain misorientation and b-Sn elastic anisotropy on whisker and hillock formation - CORRIGENDUM," Journal of Materials Research , vol. 28 no. 5, pp. 785, Mar. 14, 2013.

Hillman, Dave, and Lesniewski, Tom, "An Investigation of Whisker Growth on Tin Coated Wire and Braid," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Mar. 6, 2013.

"Tin Whisker Mitigation & Conformal Coating," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 28 no. 2, pp. 57, Feb. 2013.

Hong, Won Sik, Oh, Chul Min, and Kim, Do Seop, "Mitigation and Verification Methods for Sn Whisker Growth in Pb-Free Automotive Electronics." Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 42 no. 2, pp. 332-347, Feb. 2013.

Jadhav, Nitin, Williams, Maureen, Pei, Fei, Stafford, Gery, and Chason, Eric, "Altering the Mechanical Properties of Sn Films by Alloying with Bi: Mimicking the Effect of Pb to Suppress Whiskers," Journal of Electronic Materials , vol. 42 no. 2, pp. 312-318, Feb. 2013.

Williams, J. J., Chapman, N. C., and Chawla, N., "Mechanisms of Sn Hillock Growth in Vacuum by In Situ Nanoindentation in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)." Journal of Electronic Materials , vol. 42 no. 2, pp. 224-229, Feb. 2013.

Li, Cai-Fu, Liu, Zhi-Quan, and Shang, Jian-Ku, "The effects of temperature and humidity on the growth of tin whisker and hillock from Sn5Nd alloy," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 550, pp. 231-238, Feb. 15, 2013.

Li, Cai-Fu, and Liu, Zhi-Quan, "Microstructure and growth mechanism of tin whiskers on RESn3 compounds," Acta Materialia, vol. 61 no. 2, pp. 589-601, Jan. 2013.

Handwerker, Carol, "Tin Whisker Formation: A Predictive Model Based on Local Microstructure and Grain Boundary Properties," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Jan. 30, 2013.

Sarobol, Pylin, Chen, Wei-Hsun, Wang, Ying, Koppes, John P., Pedigo, Aaron E., Su, Peng, Blendell, John E., and Handwerker, Carol A., "Tin Whisker Formation: A Predictive Model Based on Local Microstructure and Grain Boundary Properties," Tin Whisker Group Teleconference, Jan. 30, 2013.

van den Bosch, Brett, "Cause of tin whiskers identified," Dataweek, vol. 36 no. 1, pp. 4, Jan. 23, 2013.

Susan, Don, "Tin Whisker Work at Sandia National Laboratories," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Jan. 9, 2013.

2012: 0 books, 0 theses, 65 papers, and 1 web page on tin whiskers

Crandall, Erika R., Factors Governing Tin Whisker Growth. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 2012.

Han, Sungwon, Assessment of an Electrical Shorting and Metal Vapor Arcing Potential of Tin Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2012.

Mizuguchi, Yukiko, Murakami, Yosuke, Tomiya, Shigetaka, Asai, Tadashi, Kiga, Tomoya, and Suganuma, Katsuaki, "Effect of Crystal Orientation on Sn Whisker-Free Sn-Ag-Cu Plating," Materials Transactions, vol. 53 no. 12, pp. 2078-2084, 2012.

Murakami, Koji, Hino, Makoto, Mitooka, Yutaka, and Kanadani, Teruto, "Formation and Growth of Tin Whiskers on Aluminum-Tin Alloys," Materials Transactions, vol. 53 no. 1, pp. 209-216, 2012.

Xue, Peng, Xue, Songbai, Shen, Yifu, Xiao, Zhengxiang, Zhu, Hong, Long, Weimin, and Yu, Xinquan, "Effect of Pr on properties and Sn whisker growth of Sn-9Zn-xPr solder," Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 24 no. 4, pp. 280-286, 2012.

Anderson, A. F., "Provisional notes on the CTS electronic accelerator pedals as used in some Toyota vehicles," Dec. 15, 2012.

Liu, Ting, Ding, Dongyan, Wang, Yiqing, Hu, Yu, Gong, Yihua, and Galuschki, Klaus-Peter, "Ni Barrier for Tin Whisker Mitigation," 2012 2nd IEEE CPMT Symposium Japan, Kyoto, Japan, Dec. 10-12, 2012, pp. xx-xx.

Onuki, Hiroshi, and Shibutani, Tadahiro, "In-situ Observation of Whisker Nucleation in Air with AFM," 2012 2nd IEEE CPMT Symposium Japan, Kyoto, Japan, Dec. 10-12, 2012, pp. xx-xx.

Crandall, E. R., Flowers, G. T., Lall, P., and Bozack, M. J., "Whisker Growth From Sn Solder Alloys," 2012 IEEE 14th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, Singapore, Singapore, Dec. 5-7, 2012, pp. 671-675.

Tyler, Don, "Robotic Hot Solder Dip for Prevention of Tin Whiskers and Weak Solder Joints," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Nov. 6, 2012.

Anglin, Benjamin Stewart, Investigation and Characterization of Thermoelastic Eigenstresses Near Microstructural Features and the Application to Tin Whisker Growth. Ph. D. Thesis for Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, Oct. 2012.

Chada, Srinivas, "Topics in Lead-Free Solders: Interfacial and Sn Whisker Growth," JOM , vol. 64 no. 10, pp. 1174-1175, Oct. 2012.

Dunn, B. D., "Guidelines for Creating a Lead-Free Control Plan," European Space Agency STM-281, Oct. 2012.

Pei, Fei, Jadhav, Nitin, and Chason, Eric, "Correlation Between Surface Morphology Evolution and Grain Structure: Whisker/Hillock Formation in Sn-Cu," JOM, vol. 64 no. 10, pp. 1176-1183, Oct. 2012.

Tulkoff, Cheryl, "A New & Better Approach to Tin Whisker Mitigation (Tutorial 14)," SMTA International Conference, Orlando, FL, Oct. 15, 2012.

Pinsky, David, "Tin Whisker Risk Management for High Reliability Systems," SMTA International 2012 Conference Proceedings, Orlando, FL, Oct. 14-18, 2012, pp. xx-xx.

Lead-Free Surface Finishes for Electronic Components: Tin Whisker Growth (before Oct. 2, 2012)

Han, Sungwon, Osterman, Michael, Meschter, Stephan, and Pecht, Michael, "Evaluation of Effectiveness of Conformal Coatings as Tin Whisker Mitigation," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 41 no. 9, pp. 2508-2518, Sept. 2012.

Crandall, E. R., Flowers, G. T., Lall, P., Snipes, E. K., and Bozack, M. J., "The Influence of Surface Oxides on Whiskering," 2012 IEEE 58th Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Portland, OR, Sept. 23-26, 2012, pp. xx-xx.

Crandall, E. R., Flowers, G. T., Lall, P., and Bozack, M. J., "Whisker Prevention Using Hard Metal Cap Layers," 2012 IEEE 58th Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Portland, OR, Sept. 23-26, 2012, pp. xx-xx.

Shin, Ho Sun, Jeon, Seong Gi, Yu, Jin, and Song, Jae Yong, "Transformation of Sn nanowires to oxide nanotubes by a localized corrosion process," Materials Letters, vol. 82, pp. 22-25, Sept. 1, 2012.

Fortier, Aleksandra, and Kovacevic, Radovan, "Internal Microstructure Investigation of Tin Whisker Growth Using FIB Technology," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 41 no. 8, pp. 2029-2034, Aug. 2012.

Han, Sungwon, Osterman, Michael, and Pecht, Michael, "Likelihood of Metal Vapor Arc by Tin Whiskers," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 27 no. 8, pp. 48-50,52,54,56, Aug. 2012.

Lee, David M., and Pinol, Lesly A., "Effects of Tin and Copper Nanotexturization on Tin Whisker Formation," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 27 no. 8, pp. 18-20,22-24,26,28,30, Aug. 2012.

Lesniewski, Thomas, and Hillman, Dave, "An Investigation of Whisker Growth on Tin-Coated Wire and Braid," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 27 no. 8, pp. 32-34,36,38-40,42-43, Aug. 2012.

Sentz, Scott, "Tin Whisker Mitigation Process for Surface Mount Components," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 27 no. 8, pp. 58-60,62, Aug. 2012.

Liu, Ting, Ding, Dongyan, Wang, Yiqing, Hu, Yu, Gong, Yihua, and Galuschki, Klaus-Peter, "Tin Whisker Growth on Bright Sn Films Supported by Lead-frame Alloy Substrates," 2012 13th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density Packaging, Guilin, China, Aug. 13-16, 2012, pp. 1145-1149.

Liu, Zhi-Quan, and Li, Cai-Fu, "Spontaneous tin whisker growth from rare-earth tin alloys," 2012 13th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density Packaging, Guilin, China, Aug. 13-16, 2012, pp. 373-375.

Yin, C. Y., Best, C., Bailey, C., Stoyanov, S., and Alam, M. O., "Statistical Analysis of the Impacts of Refinishing Process on the Reliability of Microelectronics Components," 2012 13th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density Packaging, Guilin, China, Aug. 13-16, 2012, pp. 1377-1381.

Yuan, Jiaojiao, Wang, Xuefang, Lv, Zhicheng, Shi, Shuai, Wang, Yuzhe, and Liu, Sheng, "Study of Factors Influencing Tin Whisker Growth," 2012 13th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density Packaging, Guilin, China, Aug. 13-16, 2012, pp. 940-944.

Mizuguchi, Yukiko, Murakami, Yosuke, Tomiya, Shigetaka, Asai, Tadashi, Kiga, Tomoya, and Suganuma, Katsuaki, "Effect of Crystal Orientation on Mechanically Induced Sn Whiskers on Sn-Cu Plating," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 41 no. 7, pp. 1859-1867, July 2012.

Chang, Jaewon, Seo, Sun-Kyoung, Cho, Moon Gi, Lee, Dong Nyung, Kang, Kyoo-Sik, and Lee, Hyuck Mo, "Effects of Be and Co addition on the growth of Sn whiskers and the properties of Sn-based Pb-free solders," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 27 no. 14, pp. 1877-1886, July 28, 2012.

Ye, Huan, Xue, Songbai, and Pecht, Michael, "Evaluation of the microstructure and whisker growth in Sn-Zn-Ga solder with Pr content," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 27 no. 14, pp. 1887-1894, July 28, 2012.

Meschter, Stephan, Snugovsky, Polina, Kennedy, Jeff, Bagheri, Zohreh, and Kosiba, Eva, "SERDP Tin Whisker Testing and Modeling: Low Stress Conditions," Tin Whisker Group Teleconference, July 25, 2012.

Osterman, Michael, "CALCE Whisker Research," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, July 11, 2012.

Horvath, Barbara, Illes, Balazs, Shinohara, Tadashi, and Harsanyi, Gabor, "Whisker growth on annealed and recrystallized tin platings," Thin Solid Films, vol. 520 no. 17, pp. 5733-5740, June 30, 2012.

Xian, Ai-Ping, and Liu, Meng, "Effect of humidity on tin whisker growth from Sn3Nd intermetallic compound," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 27 no. 12, pp. 1652-1662, June 28, 2012.

Chinn, Jeff, "IST Super-Hydrophobic ALD Coatings," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, June 6, 2012.

Fortier, Aleksandra, and Pecht, Michael G., "Comparative Study of Metal Films and Their Affinity for Metal Whisker Growth," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, vol. 2 no. 5, pp. 739-747, May 2012.

Terasaki, Takeshi, Kato, Takahiko, Iwasaki, Tomio, Ookura, Yasutaka, Nakamura, Masato, Ishii, Hideki, and Yamamoto, Kenji, "Prediction of Tin-Whiskers Generation during Thermal Cycle Test Using Stress and Mass-Diffusion Analysis," 2012 IEEE 62nd Electronic Components and Technology Conference, San Diego, CA, May 29-June 1, 2012, pp. 1183-1189.

Pei, Fei, Jadhav, Nitin, and Chason, Eric, "Correlating whisker growth and grain structure on Sn-Cu samples by real-time scanning electron microscopy and backscattering diffraction characterization ," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 100 no. 22, pp. 221902-1-221902-4, May 28, 2012.

Kostic, Andrew D., "The Aerospace Corporation Lead-Free Working Group (LFWG)," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, May 16, 2012.

Meschter, Stephen, Snugovsky, Polina, Kennedy, Jeff, McKeown, Steve, Bagheri, Zohreh, and Kosiba, Eva, "Tin Whisker Testing and Modeling: Low Stress Conditions," International Conference on Soldering and Reliability, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 16-18, 2012, pp. xx-xx.

Meschter, Stephan, Snugovsky, Polina, Kennedy, Jeff, Bagheri, Zohreh, and Kosiba, Eva, "Tin Whisker Testing: Low Stress Conditions," International Conference on Soldering and Reliability, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 15-18, 2012, pp. xx-xx.

Illes, Balazs, Horvath, Barbara, Lipak, Balazs, and Geczy, Attila, "Investigating Whisker Growth on Immersion Tin Surface Finishing," 2012 35th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, Bad Aussee, Austria, May 9-13, 2012, pp. 242-247.

Anderson, Antony, "Sudden Acceleration/Surge Incident Brandon Street, Wellington NZ," May 9, 2012.

Stoyanov, Stoyan, Bailey, Chris, Tollafield, Peter, Crawford, Rob, Parker, Mike, Scott, Jim, and Roulston, John, "Thermal Modelling and Optimisation of Hot Solder Dip Process," 2012 13th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, Lisbon, Portugal, Apr. 16-18, 2012, pp. xx-xx.

Hillman, Dave, "Tin Whiskers: A 2012 State of the Industry Assessment," IPC Webinar, Apr. 5, 2012.

"Tin Whisker Mitigation on New and Stored Parts," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 29 no. 3, pp. 36-37, Mar. 2012.

Jadhav, Nitin, Wasserman, Jacob, Pei, Fei, and Chason, Eric, "Stress Relaxation in Sn-Based Films: Effects of Pb Alloying, Grain Size, and Microstructure," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 41 no. 3, pp. 588-595, Mar. 2012.

"Examples of Whiskergrowing in Industry Applications," 3rd Electronic Materials and Assembly Processes for Space (EMPS) Workshop, Genova, Italy, Mar. 21, 2012.

"Tin Whiskers 2012," 3rd Electronic Materials and Assembly Processes for Space (EMPS) Workshop, Genova, Italy, Mar. 21, 2012.

Dunn, Barrie, "Conformal Coatings - the importance of mechanical properties with respect to tin whisker mitigation," 3rd Electronic Materials and Assembly Processes for Space (EMPS) Workshop, Genova, Italy, Mar. 21, 2012.

Hunt, Christopher, "An Overview of NPL studies related to Spacecraft electronics'," 3rd Electronic Materials and Assembly Processes for Space (EMPS) Workshop, Genova, Italy, Mar. 21, 2012.

Mozdzen, Grazyna, Jogl, Christian, and Schorn, Leopold, "Study on Tin Whiskers: Microstructure, Formation and Thickness of Tin Oxide," 3rd Electronic Materials and Assembly Processes for Space (EMPS) Workshop, Genova, Italy, Mar. 21, 2012.

Hao, Hu, Xu, Guangchen, Song, Yonglun, Shi, Yaowu, and Guo, Fu, "A Model for Rapid Tin Whisker Growth on the Surface of ErSn3 Phase," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 41 no. 2, pp. 184-189, Feb. 2012.

Milad, George, "The Elimination of Whiskers from Electroplated Tin," Metal Finishing , vol. 110 no. 1, pp. 10-15, Jan.-Feb. 2012.

Snugovsky, Polina, Meschter, Stephan, Bagheri, Zohreh, Kosiba, Eva, Romansky, Marianne, and Kennedy, Jeffrey, "Whisker Formation Induced by Component and Assembly Ionic Contamination," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 41 no. 2, pp. 204-223, Feb. 2012.

Smetana, Joe, "HDPUG Pb-Free Board Materials Reliability Project 2: Moisture Sensitivity and Its Effect on Delamination," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Feb. 29, 2012.

Chason, Eric, "Real-Time Study of Whisker/Hillock Formation in Sn-Cu Systems by EBSD Characterization," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Feb. 22, 2012.

Pei, Fei, Jadhav, Nitin, Buchovecky, Eric, Chason, Eric, Bower, Allan, and Kumar, Sharvan, "Real-Time Study of Whisker/Hillock Formation in Sn-Cu Systems by EBSD Characterization," Tin Whisker Group Teleconference, Feb. 22, 2012.

Bozack, Michael J., "Research Activities in Surface Physics," Tin Whisker Group teleconferences, Feb. 15, 2012, Mar. 21, 2012, and Apr. 25, 2012.

Mason, Maribeth, Eng, Genghmun, Leung, Martin, Stupian, Gary, and Yeoh, Terence, "Tin Whisker Risk Assessment for Space Systems," Electronic Device Failure Analysis, vol. 14 no. 1, pp. 14-20, Feb. 2012.

Chawla, Nik, "Overview of Pb-free Solder Research Activities," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Feb. 1, 2012.

Smetana, Joe, "A Standard Multilayer Printed Wiring Board for Material Reliability Evaluations," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Jan. 18, 2012.

Osterman, Michael, "Assessment of Tin Whisker Mitigation for Conformally Coated SnPb Assemblies," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Jan. 11, 2012.

2011: 3 books, 4 theses, 80 papers, and 4 web pages on tin whiskers

Cheng, Jing, Tin Whiskers in Electronic Packaging: Mechanism and Modeling. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 2011.

Grossmann, Gunter, and Zardini, Christian, The ELFNET Book on Failure Mechanisms, Testing Methods, and Quality Issues of Lead-Free Solder Interconnects. New York: Springer, 2011. ISBN 978-0-85729-235-3. $129.00 list price.

Han, Jung Kyu, Effect of Thermo-Electromigration on Copper Dissolution and Intermetallic Compound Formation in Flip-Chip Pb-free Solder Joints. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Henshall, Greg, Bath, Jasbir, and Handwerker, Carol A., Lead-Free Solder Process Development. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN 978-0-470-41074-5. $99.95 list price.

Hua, L., Su, M. W., Zhang, W. J., and Hu, Q. L., "Electrochemical migration and rapid whisker growth of Zn and Bi dopings in Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder in 3wt.% NaCl Solution," Advanced Materials Research, vol. 239-242, pp. 1751-1760, 2011.

Meschter, Stephan, McKeown, Steve, Snugovsky, Polina, Kennedy, Jeff, and Kosiba, Eva, "Tin Whisker Testing and Risk Modeling Project," SMTA Journal, vol. 24 no. 3, pp. 23-31, 2011.

Murakami, Koji, Hino, Makoto, Mitooka, Yutaka, and Kanadani, Teruto, "Formation and growth of tin whiskers on aluminum-tin alloys," Journal of Japan Institute of Light Metals, vol. 61 no. 4, pp. 142-148, 2011.

Sood, Bhanu, Osterman, Michael, and Pecht, Michael, "Tin whisker analysis of Toyota's electronic throttle controls," Circuit World, vol. 37 no. 3, pp. 4-9, 2011.

Su, Chien-Hao, Chen, Hao, Lee, Hsin-Yi, and Wu, Albert T., "Controlled positions and kinetic analysis of spontaneous tin whisker growth," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 99, pp. 131906-1-131906-3, 2011.

Wright, Roger N., Wire Technology: Process Engineering and Metallurgy. Elsevier, 2011. ISBN 978-0-12-382092-1.

Zhang, Jinsong, and Zhang, Jianhua, "Estimation of whiskers growth on Sn coating of Cu-Leads in different accelerated tests," Advanced Materials Research, vol. 160-162, pp. 1575-1581, 2011.

Hua, L., and Yang, C., "Corrosion behavior, whisker growth, and electrochemical migration of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder doping with In and Zn in NaCl solution," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 51 no. 12, pp. 2274-2283, Dec. 2011.

Pinol, Lesly A., Melngailis, John, Charles, Harry K., Lee, David M., Deacon, Ryan, Coles, George, and Clatterbaugh, Guy, "Influence of Tin Deposition Methods on Tin Whisker Formation," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, vol. 1 no. 12, pp. 2028-2032, Dec. 2011.

Baated, Alongheng, Kim, Keun-Soo, and Suganuma, Katsuaki, "Effect of intermetallic growth rate on spontaneous whisker growth from a tin coating on copper," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 22 no. 11, pp. 1685-1693, Nov. 2011.

Baated, Alongheng, Hamasaki, Kyoko, Kim, Sun Sik, Kim, Keun-Soo, and Suganuma, Katsuaki, "Whisker Growth Behavior of Sn and Sn Alloy Lead-Free Finishes," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 40 no. 11, pp. 2278-2289, Nov. 2011.

Fjelstad, Joe, "Whiskers - a coming of age event in the life of electronics too?," Global SMT and Packaging, vol. 11 no. 11, pp. 88-89, Nov. 2011.

Sobiech, M., Teufel, J., Welzel, U., Mittemeijer, E. J., and Hugel, W., "Stress Relaxation Mechanisms of Sn and SnPb Coatings Electrodeposited on Cu: Avoidance of Whiskering," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 40 no. 11, pp. 2300-2313, Nov. 2011.

Suganuma, Katsuaki, Baated, Alongheng, Kim, Keun-Soo, Hamasaki, Kyoko, Nemoto, Norio, Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi, and Yamada, Toshiyuki, "Sn whisker growth during thermal cycling," Acta Materialia, vol. 59 no. 19, pp. 7255-7267, Nov. 2011.

"Tin Whisker Qualification and Reliability Testing," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 28 no. 10, pp. 37,39, Oct. 2011.

Chason, Eric, Jadhav, Nitin, and Pei, Fei, "Effect of Layer Properties on Stress Evolution, Intermetallic Volume, and Density during Tin Whisker Formation," JOM, vol. 63 no. 10, pp. 62-68, Oct. 2011.

Cheng, Jing, Yang, Fuqian, Vianco, Paul T., Zhang, Bei, and Li, James C. M., "Optimum Thickness of Sn Film for Whisker Growth," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 40 no. 10, pp. 2069-2075, Oct. 2011.

Osenbach, J. W., "Tin Whiskers: An Illustrated Guide to Growth Mechanisms and Morphologies," JOM, vol. 63 no. 10, pp. 57-60, Oct. 2011.

Clore, Nicholas, "Identification and Counting Procedure for Tin Whiskers, Hillocks, and Other Surface Defects," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Oct. 26, 2011.

Illes, Balazs, Horvath, Barbara, Shinohara, Tadashi, and Harsanyi, Gabor, "Tin Whisker Growth from Sn-Cu (0.5 wt%) Surface Finishes," 2011 IEEE 17th International Symposium for Design and Technology in Electronic Packaging , Timisoara, Romania, Oct. 20-23, 2011, pp. 49-54.

Davy, Gordon, "Tin-Whisker-Impenetrable Metal Cap Process for Electronic Assemblies: An Analysis of Cap TW Penetrability and Prevention vs. Mitigation," Tin Whisker Group teleconferences, Oct. 19, 2011, Nov. 2, 2011, Nov. 9, 2011, Nov. 16, 2011, Dec. 7, 2011, Dec. 21, 2011, and Jan. 25, 2012.

Hillman, Dave, and Hamand, Matt, "Tin Whiskers: A 2011 State of the Industry Assessment (Tutorial T6)," SMTA International 2011 Conference, Fort Worth, TX, Oct. 16-20, 2011.

Primavera, Anthony A., "In-process Reduction/Mitigation of Tin Whiskers by Condensing Vapor Reflow," SMTA International 2011 Conference Proceedings, Fort Worth, TX, Oct. 16-20, 2011, pp. 873-880.

Sarobol, Pylin, Chen, Wei-Hsun, Blendell, John E., Su, Peng, and Handwerker, Carol A., "Effects of Grain Misorientations & Strain Distribution on the Location of Whisker Formation on Electroplated Sn-Cu films," SMTA International 2011 Conference, Fort Worth, TX, Oct. 16-20, 2011.

Brusse, Jay, "Electrical Failure of an Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Caused by a Tin Whisker and Discussion of Investigative Techniques Used for Whisker Detection," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Oct. 12, 2011.

Shi, Hong-Chang, and Xian, Ai-Ping, "Tin Whisker Growth on NdSn3 Powder," Journal of Electronic Materials , vol. 40 no. 9, pp. 1962-1966, Sept. 2011.

Sun, Yong, Hoffman, Elizabeth N., Lam, Poh-Sang, and Li, Xiaodong, "Evaluation of local strain evolution from metallic whisker formation," Scripta Materialia, vol. 65 no. 5, pp. 388-391, Sept. 2011.

"iNEMI Updates Tin Whiskers Findings," SMT Web Exclusive Article. (before Sept. 16, 2011)

"Nano Whiskers." (before Sept. 16, 2011)

"Tin Whiskers Syfer Surface Mount Capacitors," Syfer Application Note AN0019 Issue 3. (before Sept. 16, 2011)

Hilty, Robert D., "Tin Whiskers in Electronics Components," Tyco Electronics. (before Sept. 16, 2011)

Vicenzo, Antonello, "Tin Whiskers: Testing and Mitigation." (before Sept. 16, 2011)

Leidecker, Henning, Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, and Brusse, Jay, "Electrical Failure of an Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Caused by a Tin Whisker and Discussion of Investigative Techniques Used for Whisker Detection," 5th International Tin Whisker Symposium, College Park, MD, Sept. 14-15, 2011, pp. xx-xx.

Crandall, E. R., Flowers, G. T., Jackson, R., Lall, P., and Bozack, M. J., "Growth of Sn Whiskers Under Net Compressive and Tensile Stress States," 2011 IEEE 57th Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Minneapolis, MN, Sept. 11-14, 2011, pp. xx-xx.

Crandall, E. R., Flowers, G. T., Lall, P., and Bozack, M. J., "Whisker Growth Under Controlled Humidity Exposure," 2011 IEEE 57th Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Minneapolis, MN, Sept. 11-14, 2011, pp. xx-xx.

Rodekohr, C. L, Flowers, G. T., Bozack, M. J., Jackson, R., Martens, R., Zhao, Z., Crandall, E. R., Starman, V., Bitner, T., and Street, J., "Correlation of Intrinsic Thin Film Stress Evolution and IMC Growth with Whisker Growth," 2011 IEEE 57th Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts , Minneapolis, MN, Sept. 11-14, 2011, pp. xx-xx.

Zak, Pavel, Tucan, Marek, and Kudlacek, Ivan, "Lead-free Car Electronics According to Updated ELV Directive," 2011 International Conference on Applied Electronics, Pilsen, Czech Republic, Sept. 7-8, 2011, pp. xx-xx.

Jain, C. C., Chen, C. L., Lai, H. J., and Chuang, T. H., "The Inhibition of Tin Whiskers on the Surface of Sn-8Zn-3Bi-0.5Ce Solders," Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, vol. 20 no. 6, pp. 1042-1048, Aug. 2011.

Xu, C. H., Qin, X. M., Guo, W. H., and Li, Y., "Protrusion and whisker growth on tin coated copper substrate under stresses," Materials Science and Technology, vol. 27 no. 8, pp. 1271-1274, Aug. 2011.

Zeng, Guang, Xue, Songbai, Zhang, Liang, Gao, Lili, Lai, Zhongmin, and Luo, Jiadong, "Properties and microstructure of Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni solder bearing rare earth element Pr," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics , vol. 22 no. 8, pp. 1101-1108, Aug. 2011.

Shin, Ho Sun, Yu, Jin, Song, Jae Yong, and Park, Hyun Min, "Size-dependent lattice parameters of microstructure-controlled Sn nanowires," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 26 no. 16, pp. 2033-2039, Aug. 28, 2011.

Kostic, Andrew D., "Lead-free Electronics Reliability - An Update," Tin Whisker Group teleconferences, Aug. 24, 2011 and Aug. 31, 2011.

Smetana, Joe, "Pb-free Solder Joint Reliability in a Mildly Accelerated Test Condition," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Aug. 10, 2011.

Hao, Hu, Tian, Jun, Xu, Guangchen, Guo, Fu, Song, Yonglun, and Shi, Yaowu, "Irregular Tin Whisker Growth on the Surface of Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu-1.0RE Solder Joints," 2011 12th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density Packaging, Shanghai, China, Aug. 8-11, 2011, pp. 793-796.

Li, Cai-Fu, Liu, Zhi-Quan, and Shang, Jian-Ku, "Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations on the Growth of Tin Whiskers from CeSn3 Substrate," 2011 12th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density Packaging, Shanghai, China, Aug. 8-11, 2011, pp. 903-906.

Liu, Ting, Wang, Yiqing, Ding, Dongyan, Galuschki, Klaus-Peter, Hu, Yu, Gong, Yihua, Li, Ming, and Mao, Dali, "Tin Whisker Formation on Electroless Tin Films Deposited on Lead-frame Alloys," 2011 12th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density Packaging, Shanghai, China, Aug. 8-11, 2011, pp. 810-814.

Galyon, George, "Whisker Formation Concepts - The End Game," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, vol. 1 no. 7, pp. 1098-1109, July 2011.

Lee, Hua-Xing, Chan, Kah-Yoong, and Shakur, Mohd Hamdi Abdul, "Effects of Annealing on Sn Whisker Formation Under Temperature Cycling and Isothermal Storage Conditions," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, vol. 1 no. 7, pp. 1110-1115, July 2011.

Welzel, Udo, "Breakthroughs in understanding elastic grain interaction and whisker formation made possible by advances in X-ray power diffraction," International Journal of Materials Research, vol. 102 no. 7, pp. 846-860, July 2011.

Smith, Steve, "Fluid Physics," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, July 13, 2011.

Mathew, Sony, Wang, Weiqiang, Osterman, Michael, and Pecht, Michael, "Assessment of Solder-Dipping as a Tin Whisker Mitigation Strategy," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology , vol. 1 no. 6, pp. 957-963, June 2011.

Yen, Yee-Wen, Liou, Wei-kai, and Jao, Chien-Chung, "Investigation of Interfacial Reactions and Sn Whisker Formation in the Matte Sn Layer With NiP/Ni/Cu and Ni/Cu Multilayer Systems," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, vol. 1 no. 6, pp. 951-956, June 2011.

Sobiech, Matthias, Kruger, Carmen, Welzel, Udo, Wang, Jiang-Yang, Mittemeijer, Eric Jan, and Hugel, Werner, "Phase formation at the Sn/Cu interface during room temperature aging: Microstructural evolution, whiskering, and interface thermodynamics," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 26 no. 12, pp. 1482-1493, June 28, 2011.

Zeng, Guang, Xue, Songbai, Gao, Lili, Zhang, Liang, Hu, Yuhua, and Lai, Zhongmin, "Interfacial microstructure and properties of Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni/Cu solder joint with rare earth Nd addition," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 509 no. 25, pp. 7152-7161, June 23, 2011.

Gilbert, Dave, "Toyota Sudden Unintended Acceleration," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, June 22, 2011.

Cheng, Jing, Vianco, Paul T., Zhang, Bei, and Li, James C. M., "Nucleation and growth of tin whiskers," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 98 no. 24, pp. 241910-1-241910-3, June 13, 2011.

Buetow, Mike, "USAF Seeks Sn Whisker Mitigation Proposals," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 28 no. 5, pp. 10, May 2011.

Pedigo, Aaron E., The Influence of the Effective Physical Properties of Tin Electrodeposited Films on the Growth of Tin Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, May 2011.

Hester, Tom, "Tin Whisker Self-Mitigation in Surface Mount Components," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, May 11, 2011.

Illes, Balazs, Horvath, Barbara, and Lipak, Balazs, "Investigating Whisker Growth on Annealed and Recrystallized Tin Platings," 2011 34th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, Tratanska Lomnica, Slovakia, May 11-15, 2011, pp. 141-146.

Zak, Pavel, Tucan, Marek, and Kudlacek, Ivan, "Tin Coating of Connectors - Reliability Risk for Electrical Equipment," 2011 34th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, Tratanska Lomnica, Slovakia, May 11-15, 2011, pp. 229-233.

Landman, Robert J., Davy, Gordon, and Fritz, Dennis D., "Whisker-Impenetrable Metal Cap Process for Electronic Assemblies," International Conference on Soldering & Reliability 2011 Proceedings , Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 4-6, 2011, pp. xx-xx.

McCormick, Heather, Chow, Jimmy, Snugovsky, Polina, Kosiba, Eva, and Meschter, Stephan, "Development of a Test Vehicle for the Study of Tin Whiskers," International Conference on Soldering & Reliability 2011 Proceedings , Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 4-6, 2011, pp. xx-xx.

Meschter, Stephan, Snugovsky, Polina, Kennedy, Jeff, McKeown, Steve, and Kosiba, Eva, "Tin Whisker Testing and Risk Modeling Project," International Conference on Soldering & Reliability 2011 Proceedings, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 4-6, 2011, pp. xx-xx.

Perovic, Doug, Snugovsky, Leonid, Rutter, John, Snugovsky, Polina, Bagheri, Zohreh, and Meschter, Stephan, "Microstructure and Whisker Growth of SAC Solder Alloys with Rare Earth Additions in Different Environments," International Conference on Soldering & Reliability 2011 Proceedings, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 4-6, 2011, pp. xx-xx.

Hunt, Christopher, "Reliability issues with lead-free," 2nd Electronic Materials and Assembly Processes for Space (EMPS) Workshop, Paris, France, May 4, 2011.

Mason, Maribeth, Eng, Genghmun, Leung, Martin, Stupian, Gary, and Yeoh, Terence, "Microanalysis for Tin Whisker Risk Assessment," 2011 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, Monterey, CA, Apr. 10-14, 2011, pp. 2G.3.1-2G.3.5.

Savage, Timothy Scott, "The Implications of RoHS on Active Implantable Medical Devices," 2011 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, Monterey, CA, Apr. 10-14, 2011, pp. 3B.1.1-3B.1.7.

Buetow, Mike, "Tin Ears," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly , vol 28 no. 3, pp. 6, Mar. 2011.

Buetow, Mike, "Tin Whiskers Found in Toyota ETC," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol 28 no. 3, pp. 10,12, Mar. 2011.

Chuang, Tung-Han, and Jain, Chao-Chi, "Morphology of the Tin Whiskers on the Surface of a Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu-0.5Nd Alloy," Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, vol. 42 no. 3, pp. 684-691, Mar. 2011.

Howard, H. P., Cheng, J., Vianco, P. T., and Li, J. C. M., "Interface flow mechanism for tin whisker growth," Acta Materialia , vol. 59 no. 5, pp. 1957-1963, Mar. 2011.

Asrar, Nausha, "Detrimental Effects of Excessive Gold Plating on Lead-Free Solder Joints," Electronic Device Failure Analysis, vol. 13 no. 1, pp. 4,6-8,10-11, Feb. 2011.

Verdi, Fred, "Susceptibility Testing for Tin Whiskers," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Feb. 23, 2011.

Tin Whisker Summary (before Feb. 13, 2011)

Tin Whiskers (before Feb. 13, 2011)

Pb-free (Lead Free) Frequently Asked Questions (before Feb. 12, 2011)

Plating (before Feb. 12, 2011)

Osenbach, John, "Creep and It's Affect on Sn Whisker Growth," Tin Whisker Group teleconferences, Feb. 9, 2011 and Feb. 16, 2011.

Ye, Huan, Xue, Songbai, Zhang, Liang, Xiao, Zhengxiang, Hu, Yuhua, Lai, Zhongmin, and Zhu, Hong, "Sn whisker growth in Sn-9Zn-0.5Ga-0.7Pr lead-free solder," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 509 no. 5, pp. L52-L55, Feb. 3, 2011.

Cheng, Jing, Vianco, Paul T., Subjeck, Joeseph, and Li, James C. M., "An assessment of Sn whiskers and depleted area formation in thin Sn films using quantitative image analysis," Journal of Materials Science, vol. 46 no. 1, pp. 263-274, Jan. 2011.

Chuang, Tung-Han, and Wu, Hsing-Fei, "Effects of Ce Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-58Bi Solder Joints," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 40 no. 1, pp. 71-77, Jan. 2011.

Touw, Anduin, "GEIA-HB-0005-4 Guidelines for Performing Reliability Assessment for Pb Free Assemblies used in Aerospace and High-Performance Electronic Applications," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Jan. 26, 2011.

Touw, Anduin, "GEIA-STD-0005-2 Standard for Mitigating the Effects of Tin Whiskers in Aerospace and High Performance Electronic Systems, Rev A draft 1/5/11," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Jan. 19, 2011.

"Technical Support to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) on the Reported Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) Unintended Acceleration (UA) Investigation, Version 1.0." NASA. Jan. 18, 2011.

"GEIA-STD-0005-2 Standard for Mitigating the Effects of Tin Whiskers in Aerospace and High Performance Electronic Systems," Rev A draft Jan. 5, 2011.

2010: 2 books, 1 thesis, 86 papers, and 0 web pages on tin whiskers

Galyon, George T., "Tin Whisker to Dos-2010." 2010.

Kuwano, Noriyuki, Jinnouchi, Atsushi, Horikami, Sadanori, Hirokado, Naruyoshi, and Sosiati, Harini, "Effects of Post-Plating Reflow on Changes in Crystal Grain Size of Sn-2 mass%Bi Alloy Plating with Thermal Cycling Treatment," Materials Transactions, vol. 51 no. 10, pp. 1741-1746, 2010.

Liang, S. W., Chen, Chih, Han, J. K., Xu, Luhua, Tu, K. N., and Lai, Yi-Shao, "Blocking hillock and whisker growth by intermetallic compound formation in Sn-0.7Cu flip chip solder joints under electromigration," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 107 no. 9, pp. 093715-1-093715-4, 2010.

Murakami, Koji, Okano, Masako, Hino, Makoto, Takamizawa, Masao, and Nakai, Kiyomichi, "Mechanism of Generation and Suppression of Tin Whiskers on Tin and Tin-Lead Plated Films," Materials Transactions, vol. 51 no. 1, pp. 143-151, 2010.

Pinol, Lesly Agnes, Fundamental Studies of Tin Whiskering in Microelectronics Finishes . Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2010.

Xiao, X., Sachdev, A. K., Haddad, D., Li, Y., Sheldon, B. W., and Soni, S. K., "Stress-induced Sn Nanowires from Si-Sn Nanocomposite Coatings," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 97, pp. 141904-1-141904-3, 2010.

Champaign, Robert F., and Ogden, Robert R., "Microscopy Study of Tin Whiskers," Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention, vol. 10 no. 6, pp. 444-449, Dec. 2010.

Miller, Sarah M., Sahaym, Uttara, and Norton, M. Grant, "Effect of Substrate Composition on Sn Whisker Growth in Pure Sn Films," Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 41 no. 13, pp. 3386-3395, Dec. 2010.

Zhang, Jinsong, and Zhang, Jianhua, "Mechanism of whisker growth on pure Sn coating of Cu leads in the high temperature/humidity storage tests," Applied Mechanics and Materials , vol. 44-47, pp. 2691-2695, Dec. 2010.

Leidecker, Henning, "Metal Vapor Sparking and Arcing," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Dec. 22, 2010.

Smith, Steve, Rollins, Bill, and Minter, Charlie, "The Whisker-Tough Conformal Coating: A Certain Solution to an Uncertain Problem," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Dec. 8, 2010.

Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, Brusse, Jay, and Leidecker, Henning, "Long Term Investigation of Urethane Conformal Coating Against Tin Whisker Growth," IPC Tin Whiskers Conference, Chicago, IL, Dec. 6-7, 2010, pp. xx-xx.

Verdi, Fred, Yu, Phillip, Sneh, Ofer, Toscano, Lenora, and Gallager, George, "Susceptibility Testing for Tin Whiskers," IPC Tin Whiskers Conference , Chicago, IL, Dec. 6-7, 2010, pp. xx-xx.

"Matte Tin Plating Whisker Data," Lattice Product Bulletin PB1227H, Nov. 2010.

Sauter, L., Seekamp, A., Shibata, Y., Kanameda, Y., and Yamashita, H., "Whisker mitigation measures for Sn-plated Cu for different stress tests," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 50 no. 9-11, pp. 1631-1635, Sept.-Nov. 2010.

Sobiech, M., Kruger, C., Welzel, U., Wang, J. Y., Mittemeijer, E. J., and Hugel, W., "Evolution of microstructure and stress of and associated whisker growth on Sn layers sputter-deposited on Cu substrates," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 25 no. 11, pp. 2166-2174, Nov. 2010.

Smith, Steve, Rollins, Bill, and Minter, Charlie, "The Whisker-Tough Conformal Coating: A Certain Solution to an Uncertain Problem," DMC 2010, Las Vegas, NV, Nov. 29-Dec. 2, 2010, pp. xx-xx.

Handwerker, Carol A., "iNEMI Tin Whisker Project: Overview," CARE Innovation 2010, Vienna, Austria, Nov. 8-11, 2010, pp. xx-xx.

Champaign, Robert, "Sn Whiskers?," McKinney Failure Analysis Lab. (before Nov. 5, 2010)

Handwerker, C. A., Pedigo, A. E., Sarabol, P., Blendell, J. E., and Su, Peng, "Tin Whisker and Surface Defect Formation on Electroplated Films and Reflowed Joints." (before Nov. 5, 2010)

Kurtz, Olaf, Kuhlkamp, Peter, Barthelmes, Jurgen, and Ruther, Robert, "Reducing and Preventing Tin Corrosion Whiskers," SMT Web Exclusive Article. (before Nov. 5, 2010)

Landman, Robert J., "Tin Whiskers - A Long Term RoHS Reliability Problem." (before Nov. 5, 2010)

Smetana, Joe, "NIPP-NPP-2009-053," (before Nov. 5, 2010)

"Resolution of Generic Safety Issues: Issue 200: Tin Whiskers (NUREG-0933, Main Report with Supplements 1-33) Nov. 3, 2010.

Chason, Eric, "How do whiskers and hillocks grow in Pb-free Sn coatings?," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Nov. 3, 2010.

Baated, Alongheng, Kim, Keun-Soo, Suganuma, Katsuaki, Huang, Sharon, Jurcik, Benjamin, Nozawa, Shigeyoshi, and Ueshima, Minoru, "Effects of reflow atmosphere and flux on Sn whisker growth of Sn-Ag-Cu solders," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 21 no. 10, pp. 1066-1075, Oct. 2010.

Mallik, Aditi, and Stout, Roger, "Simulation Methods for Predicting Fusing Current and Time for Encapsulated Wire Bonds," CITE>IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing , vol. 33 no. 4, pp. 255-264, Oct. 2010.

Chason, Eric, Jadhav, Nitin, Buchvecky, Eric, Bower, Allan, and Kumar, Sharvan, "How do whiskers and hillocks grow in Pb-free Sn coatings?," SMTA International 2010 Conference (Presentations), Orlando, FL, Oct. 24-28, 2010.

Leonardi, Nicholas, "Bridging Supply Chain Gap for Exempt High-Reliability OEM's Tin Whisker Mitigation and Counterfeit Detection," SMTA International 2010 Conference Proceedings, Orlando, FL, Oct. 24-28, 2010, pp. 179-184.

Woodrow, Tom, "Evaluation of Conformal Coatings as a Tin Whisker Mitigation Strategy, Part III," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Oct. 20, 2010.

Tsou, Meng-Yu, Yen, Yee-Wen, Shao, Pei-Sheng, and Jao, Chien-Chung, "Investigation of Sn Whisker Growth in the Matte Sn/Alloy 42 Substrate Coated Different Metallic Layers," 2010 5th International Microsystems Packaging Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, Oct. 20-22, 2010, pp. xx-xx.

Crandall, E. R., Flowers, G. T., Dean, R. N., and Bozack, M. J., "Growth of Sn Whiskers on Semiconductor and Insulator Surfaces," 2010 Proceedings of the 56th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Charleston, SC, Oct. 4-7, 2010, pp. xx-xx.

Crandall, E. R., Flowers, G. T., Dean, R. N., and Bozack, M. J., "Oxidation-Induced Growth of Sn Whiskers in a Pure Oxygen Gas Environment," 2010 Proceedings of the 56th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts , Charleston, SC, Oct. 4-7, 2010, pp. xx-xx.

"NASA's Suggestions for Reducing Risk of Tin Whisker Induced Failures," Products Finishing, vol. 74 no. 12, pp. 32, Sept. 2010.

Pennington, Tim, "Shaving the Whisker Problem," Products Finishing, vol. 74 no. 12, pp. 30-31,33-35, Sept. 2010.

Varkey, Bijumon, Christian, Bev, Liu, Julie, Romanov, Alexandre, and Moorhead, Philip, "Not Whiskers or Hillocks, But Tin Bumps on RF Shielding Cans," IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, vol. 10 no. 3, pp. 353-359, Sept. 2010.

"GEIA-HB-0005-4 Guidelines for Performing Reliability Assessment for Pb Free Assemblies used in Aerospace and High-Performance Electronic Applications," Sept. 23, 2010.

Pinsky, David, "Application-Specific Tin Whisker Risk Assessment Algorithm- Update 2010," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Sept. 22, 2010.

Sellers, Keith M., "Real Reliability Concerns in the Medical Electronics World," Medical Electronics Symposium 2010 Proceedings, Tempe, AZ, Sept. 22-23, 2010, pp. xx-xx.

Burke, John, "Get SMART: Tin Whiskers Eliminated!,". Sept. 9, 2010.

Landman, Bob, Davy, Gordon, and Fritz, Denny, "Tin-Whisker-Impenetrable Selective Metal Cap Process for Electronic Assemblies," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Sept. 8, 2010.

Yu, Cheng-Fu, Chan, Chi-Ming, and Hsieh, Ker-Chang, "The effect of tin grain structure on whisker growth," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 50 no. 8, pp. 1146-1151, Aug. 2010.

Yu, Cheng-Fu, and Hsieh, Ker-Chang, "The Mechanism of Residual Stress Relief for Various Tin Grain Structures," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 39 no. 8, pp. 1315-1318, Aug. 2010.

Davy, Gordon, "OEMs' Pb-free and Tin Whisker Options - Prevention vs. "Mitigation"," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Aug. 18, 2010.

Wang, Yiqing, Ding, Dongyan, Liu, Ting, Galuschki, Klaus-Peter, Hu, Yu, Gong, Angela, Shen, Ming, Sun, Hongqi, Wang, Xianfeng, Sun, Jiangyan, Li, Ming, and Mao, Dali, "Effect of Ni Barrier on the Tin Whisker Formation of Electroplating Sn on Lead-frame Alloy," 2010 11th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, Xi'an, China, Aug. 16-19, 2010, pp. 980-983.

"Plating's Effects on Electronics Assembly," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 7, pp. 40, July 2010.

Bozack, Michael J., Crandall, Erika R., Rodekohr, Chad L., Dean, Robert N., Flowers, George T., and, Suhling, Jeffrey C., "High Lateral Resolution Auger Electron Spectroscopic (AES) Measurements for Sn Whiskers on Brass," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 33 no. 3, pp. 198-204, July 2010.

Dimitrovska, Aleksandra, and Kovacevic, Radovan, "Environmental Influence on Sn Whisker Growth," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 33 no. 3, pp. 193-197, July 2010.

Han, Sungwon, Osterman, Michael, and Pecht, Michael G., "Electrical Shorting Propensity of Tin Whiskers," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 33 no. 3, pp. 205-211, July 2010.

Jadhav, Nitin, Buchovecky, Eric, Chason, Eric, and Bower, Allan, "Real-time SEM/FIB Studies of Whisker Growth and Surface Modification," JOM, vol. 62 no. 7, pp. 30-37, July 2010.

Jadhav, Nitin, Buchovecky, Eric J., Reinbold, Lucine, Kumar, Sharvan, Bower, Allan F., and Chason, Eric, "Understanding the Correlation Between Intermetallic Growth, Stress Evolution, and Sn Whisker Nucleation," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 33 no. 3, pp. 183-192, July 2010.

Kato, Takahiko, Akahoshi, Haruo, Nakamura, Masato, Terasaki, Takeshi, Iwasaki, Tomio, Hashimoto, Tomoaki, and Nishimura, Asao, "Correlation Between Whisker Initiation and Compressive Stress in Electrodeposited Tin-Copper Coating on Copper Leadframes," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 33 no. 3, pp. 165-176, July 2010.

Osterman, Michael, "Introduction to the Special Issue on Tin Whiskers," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 33 no. 3, pp. 157-158, July 2010.

Shibutani, Tadahiro, "Effect of Grain Size on Pressure-Induced Tin Whisker Formation," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 33 no. 3, pp. 177-182, July 2010.

Lin, Hsiu-Jen, and Chuang, Tung-Han, "Effects of Ce and Zn additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder joints," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 500 no. 2, pp. 167-174, June 25, 2010.

Chou, George J. S., and Hilty, Robert D., "Tin Reflow for Tin Whisker Mitigation," 4th International Symposium on Tin Whiskers, College Park, MD, June 23-24, 2010, pp. xx-xx.

Leidecker, Henning, Brusse, Jay, and Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, "Metal Vapor Sparking and Arcing," 4th International Symposium on Tin Whiskers, College Park, MD, June 23-24, 2010, pp. xx-xx.

Sampson, Michael J., "Lead-Free Electronics: Impact for Space Electronics," NASA. June 22-24, 2010

Sarobol, Pylin, "The Effects of Local Film Properties on Whisker and Hillock Growth on Sn, Sn-Cu and Sn-Cu-Pb Electroplated Films," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, June 16, 2010.

Pedigo, Aaron E., "Understanding Fundamental Tin Whisker Growth Mechanisms by Characterizing Film Properties," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, June 9, 2010.

Sarobol, Pylin, Pedigo, Aaron, Blendell, John, Handwerker, Carol, Su, Peng, Li, Li, and Xue, Jie, "A Synchrotron Micro-Diffraction Investigation of Crystallographic Texture of High-Sn Alloy Films and its Effects on Whisker Growth," 2010 Proceedings 60th Electronic Components and Technology Conference , Las Vegas, NV, June 1-4, 2010, pp. 162-169.

Shin, Ho Sun, Song, Jae Yong, and Yu, Jin, "Lattice Deformation of Sn Nanowires for the Application to Nano-interconnection Technology," 2010 Proceedings 60th Electronic Components and Technology Conference, Las Vegas, NV, June 1-4, 2010, pp. 1861-1865.

Buchovecky, Eric J., Numerical Simulation of Stress Generation and Whisker Growth in Sn Films. Ph. D. Thesis for Brown University, Providence, RI, May 2010.

Dudek, M. A., and Chawla, N., "Nanoindentation of rare earth-Sn intermetallics in Pb-free solders," Intermetallics, vol. 18 no. 5, pp. 1016-1020, May 2010.

The Lead Free Electronics Manhattan Project - Phase II. The Benchmarking and Best Practices Center of Excellence, May 31, 2010. pp. 131-132,Appendix C.

Bozack, Mike, "(tin whiskers growing on thin film tin over a zinc substrate)." Tin Whisker Group teleconference, May 26, 2010.

Woodrow, Tom, "Composition of Tin Whiskers on Tin-Plated Brass," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, May 26, 2010.

Meschter, S., "Lead-to-lead spacing considerations a part of a comprehensive 2B tin whisker mitigation strategy," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, May 19, 2010.

Howell, Keith, Koshi, Masuo, Masuda, Junya, Nishimura, Tetsuro, Nozu, Takashi, and Sweatman, Keith, "Effect of Soldering Method and Flux Type on Whisker Growth in SAC305," International Conference on Soldering & Reliability 2010 Proceedings , Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 17-20, 2010, pp. xx-xx.

Arazna, Aneta, Koziol, Grazyna, and Steplewski, Wojciech, "Investigation of Tin Whiskers Formation," 2010 33rd International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, Warsaw, Poland, May 12-16, 2010, pp. 183-185.

Jiri, Podzemsky, Martin, Copjan, Jan, URbanek, and Karel, Dusek, "Evaluation of Tin Whisker Growth," 2010 33rd International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, Warsaw, Poland, May 12-16, 2010, pp. 179-182.

Cheng, Jing, Vianco, Paul T., and Li, James C. M., "Hollow tin/chromium whiskers," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 96 no. 18, pp. 184102-1-184102-3, May 3, 2010.

Cheng, Jing, Chen, Samuel, Vianco, Paul T., and Li, James C. M., "Quantitative analysis for hillocks grown from electroplated Sn film," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 107 no. 7, pp. 074902-1-074902-4, Apr. 2010.

Fox, William, and Woody, Linda, "Conformal Coatings for Tin Whisker Risk Management," Proceedings 2010 Technical Conference APEX EXPO, Las Vegas, NV, Apr. 6-9, 2010, pp. S11_01-1-S11_01-12.

Sweatman, Keith, Masuda, Junya, Nozu, Takashi, Koshi, Masuo, and Nishimura, Tetsuro, "Effect of Soldering Method, Temperature, and Humidity on Whisker Growth in the Presence of Flux Residues," Proceedings 2010 Technical Conference APEX EXPO, Las Vegas, NV, Apr. 6-9, 2010, pp. S11_02-1-S11_02-5.

Kurtz, Olaf, Barthelmes, Jurgen, Kuhlkamp, Peter, Ruther, Robert, and Neoh, Ding-Ghee, "Big Grain and Flat Morphology - A New Tin Electrolyte for Minimal Whiskering and Excellent Solderability," Metal FInishing, vol. 108 no. 3, pp. 22-28, Mar. 2010.

Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, "Plating Dendrite Formations on Sn plating," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Mar. 31, 2010.

Lin, Hsiu-Jen, and Chuang, Tung-Han, "Effects of Ce and La Additions on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-9Zn Solder Joints," Journal of Electronic Materials , vol. 39 no. 2, pp. 200-208, Feb. 2010.

Stadem, Richard, and Cristea, Cornel, "A Novel Process for Automated Lead Tinning," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 2, pp. 40-42, Feb. 2010.

Hunt, Christopher, and Wickham, Martin, "Mitigation of Tin Whiskers With Polymer Coatings," International Symposium on Advanced Packaging Materials, Cambridge, England, Feb. 28-Mar. 2, 2010, pp. 78-87.

Hunt, Christopher, and Wickham, Martin, "Reliability Issues with Lead-Free," Electronic Materials and Assembly Processes for Space (EMPS) Workshop, Portsmouth, England, Feb. 17, 2010.

Lead Free Electronics Manhattan Project Phase 2. ACI Technologies, Feb. 10, 2010.

Turbini, Laura J., "Growing Tin and Other Dangerous Whiskers," Surface Mount Technology , Feb. 5, 2010.

He, Hongwen, Xu, Guangchen, and Guo, Fu, "Electromigration-induced Bi-rich whisker growth in Cu/Sn-58Bi/Cu solder joints," Journal of Materials Science, vol. 45 no. 2, pp. 334-340, Jan. 2010.

Hino, Makoto, Murakami, Koji, Mitooka, Yutaka, Takamizawa, Masao, Naka, Toshihide, and Nakai, Kiyomichi, "Mechanism of Whisker Growth Suppression by Lead Co-deposition on Electroplated Tin Film," Materials Science Forum, vol. 638-642, pp. 835-840, Jan. 2010.

Osenbach, John W., Reynolds, Heidi L., Henshall, Gregory, Parker, Richard Dixon, and Su, Peng, "Tin Whisker Test Development- Temperature and Humidity Effects Part II: Acceleration Model Development," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 33 no. 1, pp. 16-24, Jan. 2010.

Reynolds, Heidi L., Osenbach, John W., Henshall, Gregory, Parker, Richard D., and Su, Peng, "Tin Whisker Test Development- Temperature and Humidity Effects Part I: Experimental Design, Observations, and Data Collection," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 33 no. 1, pp. 1-15, Jan. 2010.

Osenbach, John, Williams, Maureen, Handwerker, Carol, and Galyon, George, "Sn Whiskers," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Jan. 27, 2010.

Sweatman, Keith, Masuda, Junya, Nozu, Takashi, Koshi, Masuo, and Nishimura, Tetsuro, "Corrosion Driven Whisker Growth in SAC305," 2010 Pan Pacific Microelectronics Symposium & Tabletop Exhibition, Koloa, HI, Jan. 26-28, 2010, pp. xx-xx.

Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, "Evaluation of Environmental Tests for Tin Whisker Assessment," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Jan. 20,2010.

2009: 0 books, 6 theses, 78 papers, and 12 web pages on tin whiskers

Bierman, Matthew John, Dislocations in One-Dimensional Semiconductor Crystals: Nanowires, Nanotubes, and Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, 2009.

Buchovecky, Eric J., Du, Ningning, and Bower, Allan F., "A model of Sn whisker growth by coupled plastic flow and grain boundary diffusion," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 94 no. 19, pp. 191904-1-191904-3, 2009.

Chen, Kai, Tamura, N., Kunz, M., Tu, K. N., and Lai, Yi-Shao, "In situ measurement of electromigration-induced transient stress in Pb-free Sn-Cu solder joints by synchrotron radiation based x-ray polychromatic microdiffraction," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 106, pp. 023502-1-023502-4, 2009.

Chin, Erica, Templated Synthesis and Characterization of Multi-segmented Nanowires for Sensor and Optical Device Applications. Master's Thesis for University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, 2009.

Mathew, Sony, Osterman, Michael, Pecht, Michael, and Dunlevey, Frank, "Evaluation of pure tin plated copper alloy substrates for tin whiskers," Circuit World, vol. 35 no. 1, pp. 3-8, 2009.

Mitooka, Yutaka, Murakami, Koji, Hino, Makoto, Takamizawa, Masao, and Takada, Jun, "Effect of Laser Irradiation on Generation and Growth of Whiskers in Tin-Electroplated Film," Materials Transactions, vol. 50 no. 9, pp. 2247-2252, 2009.

Okamoto, Naoki, Fujii, Yuko, Kurihara, Hiroaki, and Kondo, Kazuo, "Effects of Microstructure of Deposited Sn Films and Orientation Index of Cu Foils on Sn Whisker Formation Using Substitutionally-Deposited Sn Films," Materials Transactions, vol. 50 no. 11, pp. 2570-2577, 2009.

Okamoto, Naoki, Fujii, Yuko, Kurihara, Hiroaki, and Kondo, Kazuo, "Effects of Structures of Substrates on Sn Whisker Formation Using Substitutionally-Deposited Sn Films," Materials Transactions, vol. 50 no. 10, pp. 2403-2409, 2009.

Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, Evaluation of Environmental Tests for Tin Whisker Assessment. Master's Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2009.

Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, "Whisker Length Measurement: a Validation Study," Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, 2009.

Sobiech, M., Wohlschlogel, M., Welzel, U., Mittemeijer, E. J., Hugel, W., Seekamp, A., Liu, W., and Ice, G. E., "Local, submicron, strain gradients as the cause of Sn whisker growth," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 94 no. xx, pp. 221901-1-221901-3, 2009.

Spitzner, Matthew James, Response of tin whiskers to dynamic input: Mathematical modeling and experimental property measurement. Master's Thesis for Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 2009.

Buchovecky, Eric, Jadhav, Nitin, Bower, Allan F., and Chason, Eric, "Finite element modeling of stress evolution in Sn films due to growth of Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 38 no. 12, pp. 2676-2684, Dec. 2009.

Chuang, Tung-Han, Cheng, Chih-Yuan, and Chang, Tao-Chih, "Evaluations of Whisker Growth and Fatigue Reliability of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu and Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu-0.05Ce Solder Ball Grid Array Packages," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 38 no. 12, pp. 2762-2769, Dec. 2009.

Dimitrovska, Aleksandra, and Kovacevic, Radovan, "Mitigation of Sn Whisker Growth by Composite Ni/Sn Plating," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 38 no. 12, pp. 2516-2524, Dec. 2009.

Dimitrovska, Aleksandra, and Kovacevic, Radovan, "The Effect of Micro-Alloying of Sn Plating on Mitigation of Sn Whisker Growth," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 38 no. 12, pp. 2726-2734, Dec. 2009.

Guo, Fu, Xu, Guangchen, He, Hongwen, Zhao, Mengke, Sun, Jia, and Wang, C. Henry, "Effect of Electromigration and Isothermal Aging on the Formation of Metal Whiskers and Hillocks in Eutectic Sn-Bi Solder Joints and Reaction Films," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 38 no. 12, pp. 2647-2658, Dec. 2009.

Reinbold, Lucine, Jadhav, Nitin, Chason, Eric, and Kumar, K. Sharvan, "Relation of Sn whisker formation to intermetallic growth: Results from a novel Sn-Cu "bimetal ledge specimen"," Journal of Materials Research , vol. 24 no. 12, pp. 3583-3589, Dec. 2009.

Dimitrovska, Aleksandra, Mitigation Strategies of Tin(Sn) Whisker Growth, Ph. D. Thesis for Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, Dec. 19, 2009.

Woodrow, Tom, "Effects of Pb on the Diffusion of Tin within Tin Platings," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Dec. 9, 2009.

Schetty, Rob, and Sepp, William, "Minimization of Tin Whisker Growth for Ultra-Low Tin Whisker Applications," 11th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, Singapore, Dec. 9-11, 2009, pp. 225-234.

Asai, Tadashi, Kiga, Tomoya, Taniguchi, Yoshikuni, Morikawa, Hiroshi, and Sumiyama, Kenji, "Suppression of External-Stress-Induced Formation of Tin Whisker by Annealing of Electroplated Sn-Ag Alloy Films," Nippon Kinzoku Gakkaishi/ Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals, vol. 73 no. 11, pp. 823-832, Nov. 2009.

Liu, Meng, and Xian, Ai-Ping, "Tin Whisker Growth on the Surface of Sn-0.7Cu Lead-Free Solder with a Rare Earth (Nd) Addition," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 38 no. 11, pp. 2353-2361, Nov. 2009.

Ogden, Robert R., and Champaign, Robert F., "Tin Whisker Observations," Circuits Assembly, vol. 20 no. 11, pp. 26-29, Nov. 2009.

Brusse, Jay, Tin Whiskers on Lincoln's Beard, Nov. 25, 2009.

Tin Whiskers on Card Guides Nov. 21, 2009.

Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, "Lincoln's Beard Growing Whiskers," CALCE UMD, Nov. 20, 2009.

Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, "Fat Metal Whiskers," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Nov. 18, 2009.

Liu, Meng, and Xian, Ai-Ping, "Spontaneous growth of whiskers on RE-bearing intermetallic compounds of Sn-RE, In-RE, and Pb-RE," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 486 no. 1-2, pp. 590-596, Nov. 3, 2009.

Osenbach, John W., "Creep and its effect on Sn whisker growth," Journal of Applied Physics , vol. 106 no. 9, pp. 094903-1-094903-10, Nov. 1, 2009.

Woodrow, Thomas A., "Effects of Pb on the Diffusion of Tin Within Tin Platings," 2009 AIMS Harsh Environments Electronics Symposium, San Diego, CA, Oct. 5-6, 2009, pp. 935-954.

Baated, Alongheng, Kim, Keun-Soo, Suganuma, Katsuaki, Huang, Sharon, Jurcik, Benjamin, Nozawa, Shigeyoshi, Stone, Bryan, and Ueshima, Minoru, "Effects of Reflow Atmosphere and Flux on Tin Whisker Growth of Sn-Ag-Cu Solder," SMTA International Conference, San Diego, CA, Oct. 4-8, 2009, pp. 802-808.

Cheng, Jing, and Vianco, Paul T., "In-Place Tracking for Tin Whiskers and Tin Depleted Areas at Different Stress Status," SMTA International Conference, San Diego, CA, Oct. 4-8, 2009, pp. 612-618.

Hillman, David, "False Tin Whiskers: Masquerading Tin Copper Intermetallics," SMTA International Conference, San Diego, CA, Oct. 4-8, 2009, pp. 607-611.

Lesniewski, Thomas, "Assessment of Whisker Growth from Tin Coated Wire and Cable," SMTA International Conference, San Diego, CA, Oct. 4-8, 2009, pp. 619-627.

Whytock, Paul, "Stubble Trouble-Beating Back Those Tin Whiskers," Electronic Design, vol. 57 no. 20, pp. 38, Oct. 1, 2009.

Dudek, M. A., and Chawla, N., "Mechanisms for Sn whisker growth in rare earth-containing Pb-free solders," Acta Materialia, vol. 57 no. 15, pp. 4588-4599, Sept. 2009.

Kurtz, Olaf, Barthelmes, Jurgen, Kuhlkamp, Peter, Ruther, Robert, and Neoh, Ding-Ghee, "Anti-corrosion solution for reduction and prevention of corrosion whiskers," Tin World, no. 28, pp. 10-15, Autumn 2009.

Vianco, P. T., and Rejent, J. A., "Dynamic Recrystallization (DRX) as the Mechanism for Sn Whisker Development. Part I: A Model," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 38 no. 9, pp. 1815-1825, Sept. 2009.

Vianco, P. T., and Rejent, J. A., "Dynamic Recrystallization (DRX) as the Mechanism for Sn Whisker Development. Part II: Experimental Study," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 38 no. 9, pp. 1826-1837, Sept. 2009.

Xian, Ai-Ping, and Liu, Meng, "Observations of continuous tin whisker growth in NdSn3 intermetallic compound," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 24 no. 9, pp. 2775-2783, Sept. 2009.

Horvath, Barbara, and Harsanyi, Gabor, "Mechanical Stress Induced Whiskers," 2009 15th International Symposium for Design and Technology of Electronics Packages, Gyula, Hungary, Sept. 17-20, 2009, pp. 389-393.

Hao, Hu, Shi, Yaowu, Xia, Zhidong, Lei, Yongping, and Guo, Fu, "Oxidization-Induced Tin Whisker Growth on the Surface of Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu-1.0Er Alloy," Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 40 no. 8, pp. 2016-2021, Aug. 2009.

Green-Guard 701 Aug. 15, 2009.

Chang, Jeffrey, and Lee, Bing, "Sn Whisker Concern in IC Packaging for High Reliability Application," International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, Beijing, China, Aug. 10-13, 2009, pp. 1014-1018.

Zhao, Mengke, Hao, Hu, Xu, Guangchen, Sun, Jia, Shi, Yaowu, and Guo, Fu, "Fundamental Studies on Whisker Growth in Sn-based Solders," International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, Beijing, China, Aug. 10-13, 2009, pp. 585-588.

Brusse, Jay, "Some Examples of "Whiskers" from Tin-Based Alloys," Perot Systems, July 2009.

"Some Examples of "Whiskers" from Tin-Based Alloys," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, July 22, 2009.

Geisler, Karl J. L., "Solder Fatigue Impacts of Conformal Coating for Tin Whisker Mitigation on Chip-Scale Thin Small Outline Packages," Proceedings of the ASME 2009 InterPack Conference, Volume 1, San Francisco, CA, July 19-23, 2009, pp. 915-920.

Quintero-Aguilo, Pedro O., Caceres-Valencia, Pablo, Valentin, Ricky, and Diaz, Alfredo, "Combinatorial Studies for the Minimization of Tin Whiskers Growth in Lead Free Electronics," Proceedings of the ASME 2009 InterPack Conference, Volume 1, San Francisco, CA, July 19-23, 2009, pp. 347.

Chen, Chih-ming, and Chen, Yu-jen, "Growth orientation of the tin whiskers on an electrodeposited Sn thin film under three-point bending," Materials Letters, vol. 63 no. 17, pp. 1517-1520, July 15, 2009.

Meschter, Stephan, "A Probabilistic Assessment of Component Lead-to-Lead Tin Whisker Bridging," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, July 15, 2009.

Chason, Eric, "Sn whisker formation: relationship between intermetallic formation, stress and whisker nucleation," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, July 8, 2009.

Chuang, Tung-Han, and Chi, Chih-Chien, "Effect of adding Ge on rapid whisker growth of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu-0.5Ce alloy," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 480 no. 2, pp. 974-980, July 8, 2009.

Liu, Meng, and Xian, Ai-Ping, "Tin whisker growth on bulk Sn-Pb eutectic doping with Nd," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 49 no. 6, pp. 667-672, June 2009.

Skwarek, Agata, Witek, Krzysztof, and Ratajczak, Jacek, "Risk of whiskers formation on the surface of commercially available tin-rich alloys under thermal shocks," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 49 no. 6, pp. 569-572, June 2009.

Kessel, Kurt, "NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, June 24, 2009.

Smetana, Joe, "iNEMI Recommendations on Lead Free Finishes for Components Used in High-Reliability Products," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, June 10, 2009.

Verdi, Fred, "Tin Whiskers: Mitigation With Conformal Coatings Part II," empfasis , pp. 1,7, May 2009.

Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, and Osterman, Michael, "Examination of Nickel Underlayer as a Tin Whisker Mitigator," 59th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, San Diego, CA, May 26-29, 2009, pp. 1037-1043.

Su, Peng, Lee, C. J., Li, Li, Xue, Jie, Khan, Boaz, Moazeni, Reza, and Hartranft, Marc, "Practical Assessment of Tin Whisker Growth Risk due to Environmental Temperature Variations," 59th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, San Diego, CA, May 26-29, 2009, pp. 736-741.

Terasaki, Takeshi, Iwasaki, Tomio, Okura, Yasutaka, Suzuki, Tomohisa, Kato, Takahiko, Nakamura, Masato, and Hashimoto, Tomoaki, "Evaluation of Tin-whisker Growth During Thermal-cycle Testing Using Stress- and Mass-diffusion Analysis," 59th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, San Diego, CA, May 26-29, 2009, pp. 277-284.

What's Inside Your PC? (before May 25, 2009)

Whisker (metallurgy) (before May 20, 2009)

McCormack, S., and Meschter, S., "Probabilistic Assessment of Component Lead-to-Lead Tin Whisker Bridging," International Conference on Soldering and Reliability, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 19-22, 2009, pp. xx-xx.

Smetana, Joe, "Theory of Tin Whisker Growth "The End Game"," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, May 13, 2009.

Horvath, Barbara, Illes, Balazs, and Harsanyi, Gabor, "Investigation of Tin Whisker Growth: The Effects of Ni and Ag Underplates," 32nd International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, Brno, Czech Republic, May 13-17, 2009, pp. xx-xx.

"Hot-Dip Tin Process Said to Prevent Whisker Formation," Products Finishing, vol. 73 no. 7, pp. 11, Apr. 2009.

"Tin Whisker Imagery," empfasis, pp. 9, Apr. 2009.

Verdi, Fred, "Tin Whiskers: Risks with Lead Free Part I," empfasis, pp. 1,7, Apr. 2009.

Wilson, J. R., "Lead-free RoHS on military electronics procurement," Military & Aerospace Electronics, vol. 20 no. 4, pp. 24-29, Apr. 2009.

"The Fusing of Wires and Tin Whiskers," Tin Whisker Group teleconferences, Apr. 22, 2009 and Apr. 29, 2009.

Gao, Fan, Lead-Free Nano-solders on Metallic Nanowires: Synthesis, Characterization, and Thermal Reflow Properties. Master's Thesis for University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, Apr. 21, 2009.

"Scientists Research Tin Pest and Whiskers," SMT Web Exclusive Article. (Apr. 3, 2009)

Chen, Yu-jen, and Chen, Chih-ming, "Mitigative Tin Whisker Growth Under Mechanically Applied Tensile Stress," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 38 no. 3, pp. 415-419, Mar. 2009.

Chuang, Tung-Han, and Lin, Hsiu-Jen, "Inhibition of Whisker Growth on the Surface of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu-0.5Ce Solder Alloyed with Zn," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 38 no. 3, pp. 420-424, Mar. 2009.

Mitooka, Yutaka, Murakami, Koji, Hino, Makoto, Takamizawa, Masao, and Takada, Jun, "Effect of Laser Irradiation on Generation and Growth of Whiskers in Tin-Electroplated Film," Nippon Kinzoku Gakkaishi/ Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals, vol. 72 no. 3, pp. 226-233, Mar. 2009.

Shibutani, Tadahiro, Osterman, Michael, and Pecht, Michael, "Standards for Tin Whisker Test Methods on Lead-Free Components," IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies, vol. 32 no. 1, pp. 216-219, Mar. 2009.

Wu, Albert T., and Ding, Y. C., "The suppression of tin whisker growth by the coating of tin oxide nano particles and surface treatment," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 49 no. 3, pp. 318-322, Mar. 2009.

Munson, Terry, and Solis, Paco, ""Metal Whiskers" Does Surface Contamination Have an Effect of Whisker Formation?," 2009 IPC Printed Circuits Expo, APEX & the Designers Summit Proceedings, Las Vegas, NV, Mar. 31-Apr. 2, 2009, pp. xx-xx.

Hu, Chi-Chang, Tsai, Yi-Da, Lin, Chi-Cheng, Lee, Gen-Lan, Chen, Sinn-Wen, Lee, Tai-Chou, and Wen, Ten-Chin, "Anomalous growth of whisker-like bismuth-tin extrusions from tin-enriched tin-Bi deposits," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 472 no. 1-2, pp. 121-126, Mar. 20, 2009.

Verdi, Fred W., "Lead Free Electronics, Tin Whisker Risks, and Mitigation Techniques," Mar. 11, 2009.

Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, "Non-Whisker Formations on Sn plating," Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, Mar. 3, 2009.

Dudek, M. A., and Chawla, N., "Oxidation Behavior of Rare-Earth-Containing Pb-Free Solders," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 38 no. 2, pp. 210-220, Feb. 2009.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 3 (before Feb. 25,2009)

Borgesen, Peter, "Lead-Free Solder Joint Reliability Oxymoron? (I like it, but ...)," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Feb. 25, 2009.

Hybrid Plastics Achieves a Milestone with Nanoscopic Materials for Suppression of Tin Whiskers from Lead-free Solders (before Feb. 24, 2009)

What Are Tin Whiskers? (before Feb. 24, 2009)

Martin, Holly, An Introduction to Tin Whiskers (before Feb. 24, 2009)

NASA Basic Info/FAQ (before Feb. 22, 2009)

Pure Tin Plating Prohibition (before Feb. 22, 2009)

Tin Whiskers "A New Problem" (before Feb. 22, 2009)

Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, "Melting Whiskers," Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, Feb. 13, 2009.

Spiegel, Rob, "Robots dip lead to end tin whiskers," Design News, Feb. 6, 2009.

Courey, Karim J., Asfour, Shihab S., Onar, Arzu, Bayliss, Jon A., Ludwig, Lawrence L., and Wright, Maria C., "Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics - Part II," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 32 no. 1, pp. 41-48, Jan. 2009.

Courey, Karim, "Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers - Part I," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, Jan. 28, 2009.

2008: 0 books, 3 theses, 75 papers, and 5 web pages on tin whiskers

"MAUDE Adverse Event Report," 2008.

"Thermal cycling test of tin-bismuth and tin plating," Ishihara Chemical Co., 2008.

Tin Whisker Alert 2008.

Tin Whiskers 2008.

Tin whiskers causes and prevention 2008.

Bhardwaj, Divya, Development of Lead Free Thermal Fuse Wires Using Ohno Continuous Casting. Master's Thesis for University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 2008.

Fischer, Gerd, and Esser, Bob, "Tin Whiskers," 2004-2007.

Hino, Makoto, Murakami, Koji, Mitooka, Yutaka, Takamizawa, Masao, Naka, Toshihide, and Nakai, Kiyomichi, "Lead Transfer to the Surface into Electrodeposited Tin Film and the Whisker Growth," Journal of the Surface Finishing Society of Japan, vol. 59 no. 12, pp. 925-930, 2008.

Kiga, Tomoya, Asai, Tadashi, Mizuguchi, Yukiko, Murakami, Yosuke, Tanaka, Shinji, and Tomiya, Shigetaka, "Test Method and Mechanism Analysis for Tin Whisker Growth by Mechanical Stress," Journal of the Surface Finishing Society of Japan, vol. 59 no. 4, pp. 223-227, 2008.

Moriuchi, Hiroyuki, "Approach for External Stress Type Whisker Mitigation," Journal of the Surface Finishing Society of Japan, vol. 59 no. 4, pp. 218-222, 2008.

Nakai, K., Sakamoto, T., Kobayashi, S., Takamizawa, M., Murakami, K., and Hino, M., "A model for nucleation of tin whisker through dislocation behavior," Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 165, no. 012089, 2008.

Ohgaki, Masataka, "Structural Analysis of Whisker on Lead-free Plate," Journal of the Surface Finishing Society of Japan, vol. 59 no. 4, pp. 237-241, 2008.

Southworth, A. R., Ho, C. E., Lee, A., and Subramanian K. N., "Effect of strain on whisker growth in matte tin," Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 20 no. 1, pp. 4-7, 2008.

Sperling, Ed, "Off-The-Shelf Migraines," EECatalog. 2008.

Suganuma, Katsuaki, "Research Trends of Tin Whiskers and Current under Standing of the Mechanism," Journal of the Surface Finishing Society of Japan, vol. 59 no. 4, pp. 210-217, 2008.

Tanabe, Kazuhiko, Toshima, Hiroshi, and Toyoda, Yoshitaka, "The Consideration of Whisker Growth Mechanism on Lead Free Soldering," Journal of the Surface Finishing Society of Japan, vol. 59 no. 4, pp. 228-231, 2008.

Chuang, T. H., and Lin, H. J., "Size Effect of Rare-Earth Intermetallics in Sn-9Zn-0.5Ce and Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu-0.5Ce Solders on the Growth of Tin Whiskers," Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 39 no. 12, pp. 2862-2866, Dec. 2008.

Nardone, Keith, "Combating the military's tin whisker threat: no-lead strategies for power products," Military & Aerospace Electronics, Dec. 2008.

Yang, Fuqian, and Li, Yan, "Indentation-induced tin whiskers on electroplated tin coatings," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 104 no. 11, pp. 113512-1-113512-4, Dec. 2008.

Rodekohr, Chad L., Material Factors Influencing Metallic Whisker Growth. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, Dec. 19, 2008.

Pinsky, David A., "An updated Application-Specific Tin Whisker Risk Assessment Algorith, and its use within a process compliant to GEIS-STD-0005-2." (before Dec. 14, 2008)

Pinsky, David A., "Enhancements to Current Tin Whisker Risk Assessment Methods." (before Dec. 14, 2008)

Lee, Jeffrey ChangBing, "The Whisker Mitigation Efficiency of Ni Underlayer for IC Packaging on Board," 2008 10th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, Singapore, Dec. 9-12, 2008, pp. 1060-1065.

Shibutani, Tadahiro, and Yu, Qiang, "Pressure Induced Tin Whisker Formation on SnCu Finish by Nanoindentation Creep," 2008 10th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, Singapore, Dec. 9-12, 2008, pp. 1442-1447.

Sosiati, H., Hirokado, N., Kuwano, N., and Ohno, Y., "Transmission Electron Microscopy of Spontaneous Tin (Sn) Whisker Growth under High Temperature/Humidity Storage," 2008 10th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, Singapore, Dec. 9-12, 2008, pp. 1054-1059.

Sriyarunya, Anocha, Tondtan, Jiraporn, and Tukiman, Hasmani, "Matte Tin (Sn) Plating of Semiconductor Devices - Update of Whisker Growth Study," 2008 10th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, Singapore, Dec. 9-12, 2008, pp. 94-102.

Courey, Karim, Asfour, Shihab, Bayliss, Jon, Ludwig, Larry, and Wright, Clara, "Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers," NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project Consortium, Dec. 3, 2008.

Woodrow, Tom, and Ledbury, Eugene, "Evaluation of Conformal Coatings as a Tin Whisker Mitigation Strategy, Part III," Symposium on Reprocessing, Tin Whisker Mitigation and Assembly Rework, College Park, MD, Nov. 11-12, 2008, pp. xx-xx.

Chen, Chih-Ming, and Shih, Po-Yuan, "A peculiar composite structure of carbon nanofibers growing on a microsized tin whisker," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 23 no. 10, pp. 2668-2673, Oct. 2008.

Lin, Chih-Kuang, and Lin, Tung-Hsien, "Effects of continuously applied stress on tin whisker growth," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 48 no. 10, pp. 1737-1740, Oct. 2008.

McKeown, Stephen, and Meschter, Stephan, "Effect of hot solder dipping on part stresses," 2008 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Boston, MA, Oct. 31-Nov. 6, 2008, pp. xx-xx.

Rodekohr, C. L., Flowers, G. T., Suhling, J. C., and Bozack, M. J., "Auger Electron Spectroscopic (AES) Measurements on High Aspect Ratio Tin Whiskers," Proceedings of the 54th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Orlando, FL, Oct. 27-29, 2008, pp. 232-237.

Huang, Wei, "Failure Probability Evaluation Due to Tin Whiskers Caused Leads Bridging on Compressive Contact Connectors," IEEE Transactions on Reliability , vol. 57 no. 3, pp. 426-430, Sept. 2008.

"Whiskers on Monitor PCBs," Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, Sept. 5, 2008.

"Whiskers on USB housing of PC Mother Board," Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, Sept. 5, 2008.

Lee, Jeffrey ChangBing, "Ni Underlayer Efficiency Investigation for Whisker Mitigation in IC Packaging," 2nd Electronics Systemintegration Technology Conference , Greenwich, London, UK, Sept. 1-4, 2008, pp. 453-458.

Kurtz, Olaf, Barthelmes, Juergen, and Martin, Kevin, "Anti-Corrosion Solution for Reduction and Prevention of Corrosion Whiskers," 2008 SMTA International Conference Proceedings, Orlando, FL, Aug. 17-21, 2008, pp. 739-744.

Kurtz, Olaf, Kuhlkamp, Peter, Barthelmes, Jurgen, Ruther, Robert, and Neoh, D. G., "Anti-corrosion solution for reduction and prevention of corrosion whiskers," Tin World, no. 23, pp. 8-12, Summer 2008.

Shi, Yaowu, and Hao, Hu, "Tin Whiskers with Special Morphology," Beijing University of Technology, July 2008.

Shibutani, Tadahiro, Yu, Qiang, Shiratori, Masaki, and Pecht, Michael G., "Pressure-induced tin whisker formation," Microelectronics Reliability , vol. 48 no. 7, pp. 1033-1039, July 2008.

Wei, C. C., Liu, P. C., Chen, Chih, and Tu, K. N., "Electromigration-induced Pb and Sn whisker growth in SnPb solder stripes," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 23 no. 7, pp. 2017-2022, July 2008.

Metal Whiskers from Sn-Ag-Cu Alloy Systems (before July 14, 2008)

Tin Whiskers with Special Morphology July 14, 2008.

Shibutani, Tadahiro, Yu, Qiang, and Shiratori, Masaki, "Effect of Creep Properties on Pressure Induced Tin Whisker Formation," Proceedings - The 2nd IEEE International Conference on Secure System Integration and Reliability Improvement, Yokohama, Japan, July 14-17, 2008, pp. 197-198.

Sobiech, M., Welzel, U., Mittemeijer, E. J., Hugel, W., and Seekamp, A., "Driving force for Sn whisker growth in the system Cu-Sn," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 93 no. 1, pp. 011906-1-011906-3, July 7, 2008.

Tan, Y. Y., On, Dinah, Krishnan, J., "Early Whisker Detection through Intermetallic Compound (IMC) Grain Size," 15th International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits, Singapore, July 7-11, 2008, pp. xx-xx.

Chen, Min-Na, Ding, Shi-Jin, Sun, Qing-Qing, Zhang, Wei, David, and Wang, Li-Kang, "Effect of Pulse-Plated Nickel Barriers on Tin Whisker Growth for Pure Tin Solder Joints," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 37 no. 6, pp. 894-900, June 2008.

Ciarcia, Steve, "It's All In The Whiskers," Circuit Cellar, no. 215, pp. 96, June 2008.

Fontana, Pietro, "SEM Images of a 27 Year Old Sample Containing Tin Whiskers in Comparison to Salt (NaCl) Whiskers," June 2008.

Okamoto, Naoki, Fujii, Yuko, Kurihara, Hiroaki, and Kondo, Kazuo, "Effect of the Structures within the Substrates for Sn Whisker Formation," Nippon Kinzoku Gakkaishi/ Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals , vol. 72 no. 6, pp. 413-419, June 2008.

Brusse, Jay, Leidecker, Henning, and Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, "Metal Whiskers," Nuclear Procurement Issues Committee (NUPIC) Meeting, June 19, 2008.

Brusse, Jay, Leidecker, Henning, and Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, "Metal Whiskers," UNOVIS Consortium Meeting, Owego, NY, June 18, 2008.

Meschter, S., "Lead-to-lead spacing considerations a part of a comprehensive 2B tin whisker mitigation strategy," AIA/GEIA/AMC LEAP Meeting, June 10-11, 2008, pp. xx-xx.

Courey, Karim J., An Investigation of the Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics of Tin Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, May 2008.

Falcone, Joe, and Tanabe, Goji, "Minimizing Tin Whiskering in Microminiature Connector Design," ECN Electronic Component News (Supplement), vol. 52 no. 5, pp. 10-11, May 2008.

Pinsky, David A., "The role of dissolved hydrogen and other trace impurities on propensity of tin deposits to grow whiskers," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 48 no. 5, pp. 675-681, May 2008.

Qi, Haiyu, Ganesan, Sanka, and Pecht, Michael, "No-fault-found and intermittent failures in electronic products," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 48 no. 5, pp. 663-674, May 2008.

Cheng, Jing, Chen, Samuel, Vianco, Paul, and Li, James C. M., "A New Mechanism for Hillock Formation over Electrodeposited Thin Tin Film," 2008 Proceedings 58th Electronic Components & Technology Conference , Lake Buena Vista, FL, May 27-30, 2008, pp. 472-477.

Han, Sung-Won, Kim, Kyung-Seob, Yu, Chung-Hee, Osterman, Michael, and Pecht, Michael, "Observations of the Spontaneous Growth of Tin Whiskers in Various Reliability Conditions," 2008 Proceedings 58th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, Lake Buena Vista, FL, May 27-30, 2008, pp. 1484-1490.

Pedigo, A. E., Handwerker, C. A., and Blendell, J. E., "Whiskers, Hillocks, and Film Stress Evolution in Electroplated Sn and Sn-Cu Films," 2008 Proceedings 58th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, Lake Buena Vista, FL, May 27-30, 2008, pp. 1498-1504.

Brusse, Jay, "Whisker Presentation to AAMI Cardiac Rhythm Device Management Committee," May 15, 2008.

Brusse, Jay, Leidecker, Henning, and Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, "Metal Whiskers," Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) Cardiac Rhythm Management Device Committee, San Francisco, CA, May 13, 2008.

Snugovsky, Polina, Bagheri, Zohreh, and Romansky, Marianne, "Whisker Growth on SAC Solder Joints: Microstructure Analysis," International Conference on Soldering and Reliability, Toronto, Ontario, May 13-16, 2008, pp. xx-xx.

Buetow, Mike, "Tin Whiskers Email Forum Open," Circuits Assembly, vol. 19. no. 4, pp. 14, Apr. 2008.

Chason, E., Jadhav, N., Chan, W. L., Reinbold, L., and Kumar, K. S., "Whisker formation in Sn and Pb-Sn coatings: Role of intermetallic growth, stress evolution, and plastic deformation processes," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 92, no. x, pp. 171901-1-171901-3, Apr. 2008.

Kim, Kyung-Seob, Kim, Jin-Hyeok, and Han, Sung-Won, "The effect of postbake treatment on whisker growth under high temperature and humidity conditions on tin-plated Cu substrates," Materials Letters , vol. 62 no. 12-13, pp. 1867-1870, Apr. 30, 2008.

Brusse, Jay, Leidecker, Henning, and Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, "Metal Whiskers: Failure Modes and Mitigation Strategies," 2nd International Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Tokyo, Japan, Apr. 24, 2008.

Pinsky, David A., "Tin Whiskers: Managing Risks," Overcoming the Reliability Challenge: An IPC Summit, Andover, MA, Apr. 15, 2008, pp. xx-xx.

Lesniewski, Tom, and Higley, Tom, "Effects of Tin Mitigation Processes on Whisker Growth and Solder Joint Reliability for Chip and Small-Outline Package Components," IPC Printed Circuits Expo, APEX and the Designers Summit Proceedings 2008 Technical Conference, Las Vegas, NV, Apr. 1-3, 2008, pp. S13:01.

Chuang, T. H., Chi, C. C., and Lin, H. J., "Formation of Whiskers and Hillocks on the Surface of Sn-6.6RE Alloys," Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 39 no. 3, pp. 604-612, Mar. 2008.

Liang, J., Dariavach, N., and Shangguan, D., "Tin Whisker Nucleation and Growth on Sn-Pb Eutectic Coating Layer Inside Plated Through Holes With Press-Fit Pins," IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies, vol. 31 no. 1, pp. 152-158, Mar. 2008.

Murakami, Koji, Hino, Makoto, Takamizawa, Masao, and Nakai, Kiyomichi, "Mechanism of Generation and Growth of Whiskers on Tin Electroplating," Nippon Kinzoku Gakkaishi/ Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals, vol. 72 no. 3, pp. 168-175, Mar. 2008.

Takamizawa, Masao, Naka, Toshihide, Hino, Makoto, Murakami, Koji, Mitooka, Yutaka, and Nakai, Kiyomichi, "Effect of Lead Co-Deposition on the Whisker Growth on Electrodeposited Tin Film," Nippon Kinzoku Gakkaishi/ Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals, vol. 72 no. 3, pp. 229-235, Mar. 2008.

"RoHS at QP Semiconductor," QP Semiconductor Application Note 114 Rev. 2.0, Feb. 2008.

"New additive limits tin whiskers," Solid State Technology, vol. 51 no. 1, pp. 23, Jan. 2008.

Buetow, Mike, "Report: XRF a Viable RoHS, Tin Whisker Screener," Circuits Assembly , vol. 19 no. 1, pp. 8, Jan. 2008.

Courey, Karim J., Asfour, Shihab S., Bayliss, Jon A., Ludwig, Lawrence L., and Zapata, Maria C., "Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics - Part I," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 31 no 1, pp. 32-40, Jan. 2008.

Jiang, Bo, and Xian, Ai-Ping, "Whisker growth on tin finishes of different electrolytes," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 48 no. 1, pp. 105-110, Jan. 2008.

Kim, K. S., Yu, C. H., Han, S. W., Yang, K. C., and Kim, J. H., "Investigation of relation between intermetallic and tin whisker growths under ambient condition," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 48 no. 1, pp. 111-118, Jan. 2008.

Lin, Y. W., Lai, Yi-Shao, Lin, Y. L., Tu, Chun-Te, and Kao, C. R., "Tin Whisker Growth Induced by High Electron Current Density," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 37 no. 1, pp. 17-22, Jan. 2008.

Nakadaira, Yoshikuni, Jeong, Seyoung, Shim, Jongbo, Seo, Jaiseok, Min, Sunhee, Cho, Taeje, Kang, Sayoon, and Oh, Seyong, "Growth of tin whiskers for lead-free plated leadframe packages in high humid environments and during thermal cycling," Microelectronics Reliability , vol. 48 no. 1, pp. 83-104, Jan. 2008.

Nychka, John A., Li, Yan, Yang, Fuqian, and Chen, Rong, "Can Whiskers Grow on Bulk Lead-Free Solder?," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 37 no. 1, pp. 90-95, Jan. 2008.

Wei, C. C., Liu, P. C., Chen, Chih, Lee, Jeffrey C. B., and Chen, P. C., "Relieving Sn Whisker Growth Driven by Oxidation on Cu Leadframe by Annealing and Reflowing Treatments," 2008 Pan Pacific Microelectronics Symposium & Exhibit, Kauai, HI, Jan. 22-24, 2008, pp. xx-xx.

2007: 0 books, 0 theses, 87 papers, and 1 web page on tin whiskers

Barr, Stephanie, "Mitigating and Preventing the Growth of Tin and Other Metal Whiskers on Critical Hardware," The Aerospace Corporation, 2007.

Barr, Stephanie, "Mitigating and Preventing the Growth of Tin and Other Metal Whiskers on Critical Hardware (presentation)," The Aerospace Corporation, 2007.

Barthelmes, Jurgen, Crema, Paolo, and Kuhlkamp, Peter, "Whisker Growth during Heat-Humidity Storage - Mechanism and Factors of Influence," SEMICON Singapore 2007, Singapore, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

Chuang, Tung-Han, and Yen, Shiu-Fang, "Abnormal Tin Whisker Growth in Rare Earth Element-Doped Sn3Ag0.5CuXCe Solder Joints," Materials Science Forum, vol. 539-543 part 4, pp. 4019-4024, 2007.

Fang, Tong, Mathew, Sony, Osterman, Michael, and Pecht, Michael, "Assessment of risk resulting from unattached tin whisker bridging," Circuit World, vol. 33 no. 1, pp. 5-8, 2007.

Garich, H., McCrabb, H., Taylor, E. J., and Inman, M., "Controlling Whisker Formation in Tin-Based Solders Using Electrically Mediated Electrodeposition," ECS Transactions, vol. 6 no. 8, pp. 153-163, 2007.

Jiang, Bo, and Xian, Ai-Ping, "Observations of ribbon-like whiskers on tin finish surface," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 18 no. 5, pp. 513-518, 2007.

Kato, Takahiko, Akahoshi, Haruo, Terasaki, Takeshi, Iwasaki, Tomio, Nakamura, Masato, Hashimoto, Tomoaki, and Nishimura, Asao, "Whisker Initiation Behavior from Electrodeposited Sn/Cu Coating on Cu Leadframe," Materials Science Forum, vol. 561-565 part 3, pp. 1685-1688, 2007.

Ouyang, Fan-Yi, Chen, Kai, Tu, K. N., and Lai, Yi-Shao, "Effect of current crowding on whisker growth at the anode in flip chip solder joints," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 91, pp. 231919-1-231919-3, 2007.

Smetana, Joe, "Theory of Tin Whisker Growth "The End Game"," iNEMI Tin Whisker Workshop at ECTC May 31, 2005 Updated 2007.

Tsuji, Kiyotaka, "Growth Mechanism of Tin Whisker," Journal of the Surface Finishing Society of Japan, vol. 58 no. 7, pp. 406-411, 2007.

Welzel, U., and Mittemeijer, E. J., "Stress evolution in thin films; diffusion and reactions," Defect and Diffusion Forum, vol. 264, pp. 71-78, 2007.

Chuang, Tung-Han, Lin, Hsiu-Jen, and Chi, Chih-Chien, "Oxidation-Induced Whisker Growth on the Surface of Sn-6.6(La, Ce) Alloy," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 36 no. 12, pp. 1697-1702, Dec. 2007.

Lin, Shih-Kang, Yorikado, Yuhi, Jiang, Junxiang, Kim, Keun-Soo, Suganuma, Katsuaki, Chen, Sinn-Wen, Tsujimoto, Masanobu, and Yanada, Isamu, "Microstructure Development of Mechanical-Deformation-Induced Sn Whiskers," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 36 no. 12, pp. 1732-1734, Dec. 2007.

Nakadaira, Yoshikuni, Jeong, Seyoung, Shim, Jongbo, Seo, Jaiseok, Min, Sunhee, Cho, Taeje, Kang, Sayoon, and Oh, Seyong, "Growth of tin whiskers for lead-free plated leadframe packages in high humid environments and during thermal cycling," Microelectronics Reliability , vol. 47 no. 12, pp. 1928-1949, Dec. 2007.

Subbarayan, G., Kinyanjui, R., Deutsch, J., and Baker, M., "An Experimental Study of a Components Termination Finish Conversion Process: The Robotic Stripping and Solder Termination Process," SMTAnews & Journal of Surface Mount Technology, vol. 20 no. 4, pp. 11-20, Oct.-Dec. 2007.

Preliminary Guidance for Optical Inspection for Metal Whiskers Dec. 10, 2007.

Brusse, Jay, Leidecker, Henning, and Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, "Metal Whiskers: Failure Modes and Mitigation Strategies," Microelectronics Reliability and Qualification Workshop, Los Angeles, CA, Dec. 4-5, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

Mason, Maribeth, and Eng, Genghmun, "Understanding Tin Plasmas: A New Approach to Tin Whisker Risk Assessment," Microelectronics Reliability and Qualification Workshop, Los Angeles, CA, Dec. 4-5, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

Kushner, Arthur S., "Plating Clinic: Tin Whiskers Revisited," Products Finishing, vol. 71 no. 14, pp. 61-63, Nov. 2007.

Li, Shi-Bo, Bei, Guo-Ping, Zhai, Hong-Xiang, Zhang, Zhi-Li, Zhou, Yang, and Li, Cui-Wei, "The origin of driving force for the formation of Sn whiskers at room temperature," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 22 no. 11, pp. 3226-3232, Nov. 2007.

Mason, M. S., and Eng, G., "Understanding tin plasmas in vacuum: A new approach to tin whisker risk assessment," Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, vol. 25 no. 6, pp. 1562-1566, Nov. 2007.

Brown, Neil, "A Summary of Methods for Minimizing Tin Whisker Growth," Shipley Electronic & Industrial Finishing. (before Nov. 11, 2007)

Xu, Chen, Fan, Chonglun, Vysotskaya, Anna, Abys, Joseph A., Zhang, Yun, Hopkins, Leslie, and Stevie, Fred, "Understanding Whisker Phenomenon - Part II: Competitive Mechanisms," Electroplating Chemicals and Services. (before Nov. 11, 2007)

Barthelmes, Jurgen, Lagorce-Broc, Florence, Kuhlkamp, Peter, Kok, Sia-Wing, and Neoh, Din-Ghee, "Different Storage Conditions have Different Whisker Growth Mechanisms - Can Bright Tin be an Alternative to Matt Tin ?," 31st International Conference on Electronics Manufacturing and Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malasia, Nov. 8-10, 2007, pp. 257-261.

Say, Wen C., and Chen, Chien Chon, "Formation of Tin Whiskers and Spheres on Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 46 no. 11, pp. 7577-7580, Nov. 6, 2007.

Kato, Takahiko, Akahoshi, Haruo, Nakamura, Masato; Hashimoto, Tomoaki, and Nishimura, Asao, "Effects of Minor Elements in Cu Leadframe on Whisker Initiation From Electrodeposited Sn/Cu Coating," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 30 no. 4, pp. 258-269, Oct. 2007.

Sampson, Michael J., "The Development of a NASA Lead-Free Policy for Electronics," 20th JAXA Microelectronics Workshop, Tsukuba, Japan, Oct. 29, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

"Examples of tin-whiskers failures," evertiq, Oct. 11, 2007.

Robertson, Jordan, "'Tin Whiskers' ruin electronics, stoke debate over anti-lead regulations," Dayton Daily News, Oct. 7, 2007, pp. A29.

Robertson, Jordan, "Tiny 'tin whiskers' imperil electronics," USA Today, Oct. 7, 2007.

Yu, C. H., Kang, H. S., Kim, K. S., Han, S. W., and Yang, K. C., "Effects of Postbake on the Microstructure and Whisker Growth of Matte Sn Finish," 12th International Symposium on Advanced Packaging Materials , San Jose, CA, Oct. 3-5, 2007, pp. 158-164.

Lin, Y. W., and Kao, C. Robert, "Tin Whisker Growth Induced by High Electron Current Density," Proceedings of Technical Papers - 2007 International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, Oct. 1-3, 2007, pp. 62-65.

Jiang, B., and Xian, A.-P., "Spontaneous growth of tin whiskers on tin-rare-earth alloys," Philosophical Magazine Letters, vol. 87 no. 9, pp. 657-662, Sept. 2007.

McCullen, Jack, "8.5 Tin Whisker Status", JEDEC/JEITA Joint Meeting #11, Kagoshima, Japan, Sept. 2007.

Woolley, Mark, and Choi, Jae, "The Effects of Tin Whisker Testing on Solder Connections," IPC Review , vol. 48 no. 8, pp. 6, Sept. 2007.

Tanaka, Toru, Kawaguchi, Hiroshi, Terao, Takashi, Babasaki, Tadatoshi, and Yamasaki, Mikio, "Modeling of Fuses for DC Power Supply Systems Including Arcing Time Analysis," 29th International Telecommunications Energy Conference , Rome, Italy, Sept. 30-Oct. 4, 2007, pp. 135-141.

DeBeasi, Ryan, "How to keep metal whiskers from wrecking your data center," Network World, Aug. 27, 2007.

DeBeasi, Ryan, "How worried should you be about metal whiskers?," Network World , Aug. 27, 2007.

DeBeasi, Ryan, "Metal whiskers photo gallery," Network World, Aug. 27, 2007.

Wei, C. C., Liu, P. C., Chen, Chih, Lee, Jeffrey C.B., and Wang, I Ping, "Relieving Sn whisker growth driven by oxidation on Cu leadframe by annealing and reflowing treatments," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 102 no. 4, pp. 043521-1-043521-7, Aug. 15, 2007.

Zhao, Fang, Wang, Qian, and Lee, Taekoo, "Characteristics of Tin Whisker Growth on Matte Tin Surface Finishes by Acceleration Conditions," 8th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, Shanghai, China, Aug. 14-17, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

"iNEMI Tin Whisker Workshop," Tin World, no. 18, pp. 14, Early Summer 2007.

"New tin whisker standard," Tin World, no. 18, pp. 16, Early Summer 2007.

Lin, Shih-kang, Yorikado, Yuhi, Jiang, Junxiang, Kim, Keun-Soo, Suganuma, Katsuaki, Chen, Sinn-wen, Tsujimoto, Masanobu, and Yanada, Isamu, "Mechanical deformation-induced Sn whiskers growth on electroplated films in the advanced flexible electronic packaging," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 22 no. 7, pp. 1975-1986, July 2007.

Rovner, Sophie L., "Coping With Whiskers: 'The Five Stages Of Metal Whisker Grief'," Chemical & Engineering News, vol. 85 no. 29, pp. xx-xx, July 16, 2007.

Vo, Nick, "Board-Level Whisker Testing," Apex, July 12, 2007.

Subbarayan, Guhan, Kinyanjul, Robert, Tsai, Pei Fang Jenneifer, and Srihari, Krishnaswami, "Mechanical Reliability Evaluation of Stripped and Replated Component Termination Finishes," Proceedings of the ASME InterPack Conference, Volume 1, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, July 8-12, 2007, pp. 43-49.

Takeshita, Yuki, and Kimura, Yuji, "Generating Behavior of Whisker on Pb Free Sn Plating and Its Control," Proceedings of the ASME InterPack Conference, Volume 1, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, July 8-12, 2007, pp. 591-594.

Asrar, Nausha, Vancauwenberghe, Oliver, and Prangere, Sebastien, "Tin Whiskers Formation on an Electronic Product: A Case Study," Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention, vol. 7 no. 3, pp. 179-182, June 2007.

Liang, Jin, Xu, Zhi-Hui, and Li, Xiaodong, "Whisker nucleation in indentation residual stress field on tin plated component leads," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics , vol. 18 no. 6, pp. 599-604, June 2007.

Munson, Terry, "SAC Whiskers?," Circuits Assembly, vol. 18 no. 6, pp. 58, June 2007.

Smetana, Joe, "iNEMI updates tin whisker recommendations," Global SMT and Packaging, vol. 7 no. 6, pp. 14, 16-18, June 2007.

Mathew, Sony, Osterman, Michael, Shibutani, Tadahiro, Yu, Qiang, and Pecht, Michael, "Tin Whiskers: How to Mitigate and Manage the Risks," International Symposium on High Density Packaging and Microsystem Integration, Shanghai, China, June 26-28, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

Hillman, Craig, Fischer, Gerd, and Esser, Robert, "Tin Whisker Risk Assessment Case Study," Successful Lead-Free/RoHS Strategies Conference, Boxborough, MA, June 20-21, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

Mathew, Sony, Osterman, Michael, and Pecht, Michael, "Evaluating Tin Whisker Mitigation Strategies: Conformal Coatings and Plating Technique," Successful Lead-Free/RoHS Strategies Conference, Boxborough, MA, June 20-21, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

Seelig, Karl, and Nishimura, Tetsuro, "A Unique Tin Whisker Growth Study of Nine Lead Free Alloys," Successful Lead-Free/RoHS Strategies Conference, Boxborough, MA, June 20-21, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

Shibutani, Tadahiro, Yu, Qiang, Shiratori, Masaki, and Pecht, Michael G., "Evaluation of Pressure-Induced Tin Whisker Formation," Successful Lead-Free/RoHS Strategies Conference, Boxborough, MA, June 20-21, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

Baylakoglu, Ilknur, "Reliability Concerns of Lead-free Solder Use in Aerospace Applications," 3rd International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies , Istanbul, Turkey, June 14-16, 2007, pp. 158-164.

"On Trial In Brazil," Air Safety Week, vol. 21 no. 23, June 11, 2007.

"iNEMI tin whisker group publishes updated recommendations," Tin World, no. 17, pp. 11, Spring 2007.

Chuang, Tung-Han, "Temperature Effects on the Whiskers in Rare-Earth Doped Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu-0.5Ce Solder Joints," Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, vol. 38A no. 5, pp. 1048-1055, May 2007.

Lee, Jeffrey C. B., Chen, P. C., and Tyan, C. G., "The Sn Whisker Growth Evolution of IC Packaging on the PC Board Assembly," 2007 Proceedings 57th Electronic Components & Technology Conference , Reno, NV, May 29-June 1, 2007, pp. 1964-1970.

Sobiech, M., Welzel, U., Schuster, R., Mittemeijer, E. J., Hugel, W., Seekamp, A., and Muller, V., "The Microstructure and State of Stress of Sn Thin Films after Post-Plating Annealing: An Explanation for the Suppression of Whisker Formation?," 2007 Proceedings 57th Electronic Components & Technology Conference , Reno, NV, May 29-June 1, 2007, pp. 192-197.

"Tin Whiskers," Circuitnet, May 14, 2007.

Tyler, Donald, "Tin Whisker Mitigation Through Robotic Hot Solder Dip (RHSD)," 2007 Medical Electronics Symposium, Minneapolis, MN, May 1-3, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

Garich, H., Taylor, E. J., Sun, J., Panashchenko, L., Mathew, S., Osterman, M., and Pecht, M., "Evaluation of Faradayic Plating Method for Controlling Tin Whisker Growth," Proceedings of CALCE International Symposium on Tin Whiskers , College Park, MD, Apr. 24-25, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

Leidecker, Henning, and Brusse, Jay, "Metal Whiskering: Tin, Zinc, and Cadmium," Proceedings of CALCE International Symposium on Tin Whiskers, College Park, MD, Apr. 24-25, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

Nishimi, Keith, "Space Shuttle Program Tin Whisker Mitigation," Proceedings of CALCE International Symposium on Tin Whiskers, College Park, MD, Apr. 24-25, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

Seelig, Karl, and Nishimura, Tetsuro, "A Unique Tin Whisker Growth Study of Nine Lead Free Alloys," International Conference on Soldering and Reliability, Toronto, Ontario, Apr. 17-19, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

Mason, Maribeth, and Eng, Genghmun, "Understanding Tin Plasmas: A New Approach to Tin Whisker Risk Assessment," Proceedings 45th Annual IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium , Phoenix, AZ, Apr. 15-19, 2007, pp. 150-155.

Mason, Maribeth, and Eng, Genghmun, "Understanding Tin Plasmas: A New Approach to Tin Whisker Risk Assessment (presentation)," Proceedings 45th Annual IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, Phoenix, AZ, Apr. 15-19, 2007, pp. 150-155.

Hilty, Robert D., and Corman, Ned, "An Electrical Characterization of Tin Whisker Shorting," Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Apr. 9-13, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

"New Immersion Tin Process PRESA RMK-30: Tin Whisker Issue," Uyemura, Mar. 2007.

Moriuchi, Hiroyuki, Tadokoro, Yoshihiro, Sato, Masahide, Furusawa, Takeshi, and Suzuki, Noboru, "Microstructure of External Stress Whiskers and Mechanical Indentation Test Method," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 36 no. 3, pp. 220-225, Mar. 2007.

Osenbach, J. W., DeLucca, J. M., Potteiger, B. D., Amin, A., and Baiocchi, F. A., "Sn-whiskers: truths and myths," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 18 no. 1-3, pp. 283-305, Mar. 2007.

Puttlitz, Karl J., and Galyon, George T., "Impact of the ROHS Directive on high-performance electronic systems Part II: key reliability issues preventing the implementation of lead-free solders," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 18 no. 1-3, pp. 347-365, Mar. 2007.

Tu, K. N., Chen, Chih, and Wu, Albert T., "Stress analysis of spontaneous Sn whisker growth," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 18 no. 1-3, pp. 269-281, Mar. 2007.

Williams, M. E., Moon, K.-W., Boettinger, W. J., Josell, D., and Deal, A. D., "Hillock and Whisker Growth on Sn and SnCu Electrodeposits on a Substrate Not Forming Interfacial Intermetallic Compounds," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 36 no. 3, pp. 214-219, Mar. 2007.

Hardin, Winn, "RoHS Part II: Lighten Up on Heavy Metals," Machine Vision Online, Mar. 27, 2007.

Heffner, Tracy, "iNEMI Tin Whisker User Group Publishes Updated Set of Recommendations," Printed Circuit Design and Manufacture, vol. 24 no. 2, pp. 10, Feb. 2007.

Munson, Terry, "Metal Whiskers," Foresite, Feb. 28, 2007.

Chuang, T. H., Lin, H. J., and Chi, C. C., "Rapid growth of tin whiskers on the surface of Sn-6.6Lu alloy," Scripta Materialia, vol. 56 no. 1, pp. 45-48, Jan. 2007.

Frye, Asa, Galyon, George T., and Palmer, Larry, "Crystallographic Texture and Whiskers in Electrodeposited Tin Films," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 30 no. 1, pp. 2-10, Jan. 2007.

Fukuda, Yuki, Osterman, Michael, and Pecht, Michael, "Length Distribution Analysis for Tin Whisker Growth," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 30 no. 1, pp. 36-40, Jan. 2007.

Fukuda, Yuki, Osterman, Michael, and Pecht, Michael, "The impact of electrical current, mechanical bending, and thermal annealing on tin whisker growth," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 47 no. 1, pp. 88-92, Jan. 2007.

Osenbach, J. W., DeLucca, J. M., Potteiger, B. D., Amin, A., Shook, R. L., and Baiocchi, F. A., "Sn Corrosion and Its Influence on Whisker Growth," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 30 no. 1, pp. 23-35, Jan. 2007.

Smetana, Joe, "Theory of Tin Whisker Growth: "The End Game"," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 30 no. 1, pp. 11-22, Jan. 2007.

2006: 0 books, 0 theses, 110 papers, and 1 web page on tin whiskers

"JEDEC and IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing," Tin World , no. 14, pp. 11, 2006.

Barthelmes, Jurgen, Lagorce-Broc, Florence, Kuhlkamp, Peter, Kok, Sia-Wing, and Neoh, Din-Ghee, "Different Storage Conditions have Different Whisker Growth Mechanisms - Can Bright Tin be an Alternative to Matt Tin?," International Electronic Manufacturing Technology 2006, Kuala Lumpur, Malasia, 2006, pp. xx-xx.

Barthelmes, Jurgen, Kuhlkamp, Peter, Lagorce-Broc, Florence, and Neoh, Din-Ghee, "Quantification of the influence of all important physical and chemical Tin plating bath parameters on the propensity for whisker formation," SEMICON Singapore 2006, Singapore, 2006, pp. xx-xx.

Fang, Tong, Osterman, Michael, Mathew, Sony, and Pecht, Michael, "Tin whisker risk assessment," Circuit World, vol. 32 no. 3, pp. 25-29, 2006.

Dittes, M., Oberndorff, P., Crema, P., and Su, P., "Tin Whisker Formation - A Stress Relieve Phenomenon," AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 817, pp. 348-359, 2006.

Muraki, Taiji, Ohnishi, Chiaki, Ikedo, Kenshi, Udono, Naoyasu, Mori, Shigeru, Sugiura, Shinichi, and Watanabe, Hiromichi, "Development of lead free vehicle products," Fujitsu Ten Technical Journal, no. 26, pp. 42-48, 2006.

Tsuji, Kiyotaka, "Study on the Mechanism of Sn Whisker Growth Part I Relation between Whisker Growth and the Structure of Deposits," Journal of the Surface Finishing Society of Japan, vol. 57 no. 6, pp. 451-458, 2006.

Tsuji, Kiyotaka, "Study on the Mechanism of Sn Whisker Growth Part II Estimation of Excessive Energy & Its Origin," Journal of the Surface Finishing Society of Japan, vol. 57 no. 7, pp. 529-536, 2006.

Zhang, Wan, and Schwager, Felix, "Effects of Lead on Tin Whisker Elimination," Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 153 no. 5, pp. C337-C343, 2006.

Chuang, Tung-Han, "Rapid whisker growth on the surface of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu-1.0Ce solder joints," Scripta Materialia, vol. 55 no. 11, pp. 983-986, Dec. 2006.

Sprovieri, John, "Trimming Whiskers," Assembly, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Dec. 2006.

Winterstein, J. P., and Norton, M. G., "The influence of porosity on whisker growth in electroplated tin films," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 21 no. 12, pp. 2971-2974, Dec. 2006.

"iNEMI Tin Whisker user group publishes updated recommendations to help reduce risk of tin whiskers," emsnow, Dec. 20, 2006.

"Set of recommendations to help reduce risk of Tin Whiskers," evertiq, Dec. 18, 2006.

Roos, Gina, "iNEMI updates tin whisker guidelines," Industrial Control Design Line, Dec. 18, 2006.

Roos, Gina, "iNEMI updates tin whisker guidelines," Green SupplyLine, Dec. 18, 2006.

"Tin Whisker User Group Publishes Updated Set of Recommendations Help Reduce Risk of Tin Whiskers," PCB007, Dec. 15, 2006.

Lee, Chieh-Ju, and Reynolds, Heidi, "Tin Whisker Accelerated Test Project," 8th International Conference on Electronic Materials and Packaging, Hong Kong, China, Dec. 11-14, 2006, pp. xx-xx.

Iwane, Y., Morizono, Y., Ohno, Y., and Kuwano, N., "Behavior of Whisker Growth on Tin Plated Fe-42%Ni Substrates," 8th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, Singapore, Dec. 6-8, 2006, pp. 150-153.

Sosiati, H., Kuwano, N., Hata, S., Iwane, Y., Morizono, Y., and Ohno, Y., "Tin Whisker Formation on a Lead-free Solder Alloy Studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy," 8th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference , Singapore, Dec. 6-8, 2006, pp. 398-403.

Sriyarunya, Anocha, and Tondtan, Jiraporn, "Tin Whisker Mitigation Study on Alloy 42 Pure Tin Plating" 8th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, Singapore, Dec. 6-8, 2006, pp. 726-732.

Tsutsumi, Keisuke, Iwane, Yuicji, Morizono, Yasuhiro, Kozuka, Toshiyuki, and Ohno, Yasuhide, "Whisker Formation Behavior on Tin Film Plated in High Magnetic Field," 8th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, Singapore, Dec. 6-8, 2006, pp. 722-725.

Takeuchi, Makoto, Kamiyama, Kouichi, and Suganuma, Katsuaki, "Suppression of Tin Whisker Formation on Fine Pitch Connectors by Surface Roughening," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 35 no. 11, pp. 1918-1925, Nov. 2006.

"The Growth of Tin Whisker," Samsung. (before Nov. 26, 2006)

"Tin Whisker References." (before Nov. 26, 2006)

Hunt, Christopher, "Measuring Tin Whisker Propensity." (before Nov. 26, 2006)

Tsuji, Kiyotaka, "Roll of Grain-boundary Free Energy & Surface Free Energy for Tin Whisker Growth," Ishihara Chemical Co. (before Nov. 26, 2006)

Zhang, Yun, Xu, Chen, Fan, Chonglun, Vysotskaya, Anna, and Abys, Joseph A., "Understanding Whisker Phenomenon - Part I: Growth Rates," Electroplating Chemicals and Services. (before Nov. 26, 2006)

Buetow, Mike, "GEIA Publishes Tin Whiskers Spec, 2 Others," Circuits Assembly, vol. 17 no. 10, pp. 6, Oct. 2006.

Evans, Rich, "Analysis of the Effects of Tin Whiskers at High Frequencies," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 29 no. 4, pp. 274-279, Oct. 2006.

Fukuda, Yuki, Osterman, Michael, and Pecht, Michael, "The Effect of Annealing on Tin Whisker Growth," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 29 no. 4, pp. 252-258, Oct. 2006.

Kao, H. J., Wu, W. C., Tsai, S. T., and Liu, C. Y., "Effect of Cu Additives on Sn Whisker Formation of Sn(Cu) Finishes," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 35 no. 10, pp. 1885-1891, Oct. 2006.

Oberndorff, Pascal, Dittes, Marc, Crema, Paolo, Su, Peng, and Yu, Elton, "Humidity Effects on Sn Whisker Formation," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 29 no. 4, pp. 239-245, Oct. 2006.

Schroeder, Valeska, Bush, Peter, Williams, Maureen, Vo, Nhat (Nick), and Reynolds, Heidi L., "Tin Whisker Test Method Development," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 29 no. 4, pp. 231-238, Oct. 2006.

Shibutani, Tadahiro, Yu, Qiang, Yamashita, Takuma, and Shiratori, Masaki, "Stress-Induced Tin Whisker Initiation Under Contact Loading," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 29 no. 4, pp. 259-264, Oct. 2006.

Su, Peng, Howell, Jim, and Chopin, Sheila, "A Statistical Study of Sn Whisker Population and Growth During Elevated Temperature and Humidity Tests," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 29 no. 4, pp. 246-251, Oct. 2006.

Zhao, Jie-Hao, Su, Peng, Ding, Min, Chopin, Sheila, and Ho, Paul S., "Microstructure-Based Stress Modeling of Tin Whisker Growth," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 29 no. 4, pp. 265-273, Oct. 2006.

Fukuda, Yuki, Osterman, Michael, and Pecht, Michael, "Lead-free: Electrical Influence on Tin Whisker Growth," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 20 no. 9, pp. 41-42, Sept. 2006.

Laukonis, J. V., and Coleman, R. V., "Tin whiskers and RoHS: a perspective," Electronic Products, vol. 49 no. 4, pp. 93, Sept. 2006.

Lee, Jeffrey C. B., Chen, P. C, Hsu, Hana, and Tyan, C. G, "The Effect of Surface Mounting Process on the Board Level Whisker Growth," IPC Review, vol. 47 no. 8, pp. 9, Sept. 2006.

Lee, Jeffrey C. B., Chen, P. C., Hsu, Hana, and Tyan, C. G., "The Effect of Surface Mounting Process on the Board Level Whisker Growth," Route, Sept. 2006.

Sosiati, H., Hata, S., Kuwano, N., Iwane, Y., Morizono, Y., and Ohno, Y., "Microstructural Characterization of Whiskers and Oxidized Surfaces on Sn/FeNi42 and Pb-free Alloys," CARTS-Europe 2006 Proceedings, Bad Homburg, Germany, Sept. 25-28, 2006, pp. xx-xx.

Lee, Jeffrey C. B., and Tyan, C. G., "The Effect of Surface Mounting Process on Whisker Growth in IC Package," 2006 SMTA International Conference Proceedings, Rosemont, IL, Sept. 24-28, 2006, pp. 666-673.

Su, Peng, Bai, Song, Ding, Min, and Chopin, Sheila, "The Effects of Plating Parameters on the Microstructure and Whisker Growth Propensity of Pure Sn Finish," 2006 SMTA International Conference Proceedings, Rosemont, IL, Sept. 24-28, 2006, pp. 571-578.

Treichel, Todd H., "Reliability of Space Flight Crystal Controlled Oscillator Using Lead-Free Surface Mount Technology," 2006 SMTA International Conference Proceedings, Rosemont, IL, Sept. 24-28, 2006, pp. 536-546.

Woodrow, Thomas A., and Ledbury, Eugene A., "Evaluation of Conformal Coatings as a Tin Whisker Mitigation Strategy, Part II," 2006 SMTA International Conference Proceedings, Rosemont, IL, Sept. 24-28, 2006, pp. 972-1004.

Woodrow, Thomas A., "Tracer Diffusion in Whisker-Prone Tin Platings," 2006 SMTA International Conference Proceedings, Rosemont, IL, Sept. 24-28, 2006, pp. 674-723.

Chuang, Tung-Han, and Yen, Shiu-Fang, "Abnormal Growth of Tin Whiskers in a Sn3Ag0.5Cu0.5Ce Solder Ball Grid Array Package," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 35 no. 8, pp. 1621-1627, Aug. 2006.

"Coating to stop tin whisker growth?," Circuitnet, Aug. 14, 2006.

Jiang, B., and Xian, A.-P., "Discontinuous growth of tin whiskers," Philosophical Magazine Letters , vol. 86 no. 8, pp. 521-527, Aug. 1, 2006.

Hundt, Michael, "Controlling tin whiskers in Pb-free assemblies," Electronic Products, vol. 49 no. 2, pp. 81-82, July 2006.

Hunter, Craig, and Reynolds, Chris, "Avoiding tin whiskers in Sn-Cu-plated connectors," Connector Specifier, vol. 22 no. 5, pp. 30, June/July 2006.

Kim, K. S., Yu, C. H., and Yang, J. M., "Tin whisker formation of lead-free plated leadframes," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 46 no. 7, pp. 1080-1086, July 2006.

Mathew, Sony, Osterman, Michael, and Pecht, Michael, "Tin Whiskers," Circuitnet, July 24, 2006.

Pecht, Michael, "Tin Whiskers," Circuitnet, July 24, 2006.

Henshall, Greg, "Impact of second-level board assembly on tin whisker growth," Green SupplyLine, July 21, 2006.

Roos, Gina, "GEIA to release lead-free standards for high-reliability industries," EE Times Europe, July 20, 2006.

Roos, Gina, "GEIA to release lead-free standards for high-reliability industries," Green SupplyLine, July 20, 2006.

Roos, Gina, "GEIA to release lead-free standards for high-reliability industries," EE Times, July 20, 2006.

Minter, Charlie, "Tin Whiskers: Reliability Risk That Adds a New Dimension to DMSMS," 2006 Diminishing Sources and Material Shortages (DMSMS) Conference , Charlotte, NC, July 10-13, 2006.

"JEDEC, IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard," Circuitree, vol. 19 no. 6, pp. xx-xx, June 2006.

"JEDEC, IPC Release Tin Whisker Standards," Printed Circuit Design and Manufacture, vol. 23 no. 6, pp. 8, June 2006.

"Standards aim to reduce the risk of tin whiskers," Test & Measurement World, vol. 26 no. 5, pp. 12, June 2006.

Boisvert, Michelle M., "Tin Whisker Standards Help Alleviate Risk," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 20 no. 6, pp. xx-xx, June 2006.

Chopin, Sheila, and Su, Peng, "Mitigating Whisker Growth on Electroplated Tin Finishes," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 20 no. 6, pp. xx-xx, June 2006.

Fang, Tong, Osterman. Michael, and Pecht, Michael, "Statistical analysis of tin whisker growth," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 46 no. 5-6, pp. 846-849, May-June 2006.

Fang, Tony, Matthew, Sony, Osterman, Michael, and Pecht, Michael, "Tin Whisker Risk Assessment for Electronic Products," Journal of the Reliability Information Analysis Center, pp. 10-11, 2nd Quarter 2006.

Jiang, Bo, and Xian, Ai-Ping, "Tin Whisker Growth under Cycling Current Pulse," Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE CPMT Conference on High Density Microsystem Design, Packaging and Component Failure Analysis, Shanghai, June 27-28, 2006, pp. 280-284.

"Whiskers Can't Be Eliminated," Design News, vol. 61 no. 9, pp. xx, June 26, 2006.

Buetow, Mike, "Close Shave? NASA Dismisses Sn Whisker Worries," Circuits Assembly , vol. xx no. x, pp. xx-xx, June 9, 2006.

"JEDEC and IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard and Mitigation Practices Guideline," CircuiTree, vol. 19 no. 5, pp. xx-xx, May 2006.

Fang, Tong, Mathew, Sony, Osterman, Michael, and Pecht, Michael, "Assessing Tin Whisker Risk in Electronic Products," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 20 no. 5, pp. 24-25, May 2006.

Norvell, Robin, "JEDEC Standardizes Tin Whisker Acceptance Criteria," Circuits Assembly, vol. 17 no. 5, pp. xx-xx, May 2006.

"JETRO Releases the Results of its Survey of Japanese Manufacturers in Europe and Turkey," PCB007, May 26, 2006.

Problem Advisory FV5-P-06-01A. May 19, 2006.

"Tin-whisker issues deserve to be on the front burner," Military & AerospaceElectronics. (May 12, 2006)

Elliott, Mick, "RoHS rules will hit supply of non-compliant components," Electronics Weekly, May 12, 2006.

Miller, Harvey, "The Swatch Group Struggles with Lead-Free, Applies for Exemption," PCB007, May 11, 2006.

"Reducing the risk of tin whiskers on lead-free products," RF Design, vol. xx no. x, pp. xx-xx, May 10, 2006.

Kim, Kyung-Seob, Yu, Chung-Hee, and Yang, Jun-Mo, "Behavior of tin whisker formation and growth on lead-free solder finish," Thin Solid Films, vol. 504 no. 1-2, pp. 350-354, May 10, 2006.

Olsson, Jesper, "Get used to your tin whiskers," evertiq, May 9, 2006.

Sperling, Ed, "RoHS will lead to tin whiskers," Electronics Weekly, May 8, 2006.

"JEDEC and IPC release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard and Mitigation Practices Guideline," emsnow, May 5, 2006.

Olsson, Jesper, "New tin whisker testing and reporting standard," evertiq, May 5, 2006.

Sperling, Ed, "Get Used To Tin Whiskers," Electronic News, May 5, 2006.

"JEDEC and IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard and Mitigation Practices Guideline," PCB007, May 4, 2006.

"JEDEC and IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard and Mitigation Practices Guideline," FPGA and Structured ASIC Journal, vol. xx no. x, pp. xx-xx, May 4, 2006.

"Standards aim to reduce the risk of tin whiskers," Test & Measurement World, vol. 26 no. 4, pp. xx-xx, May 4, 2006.

Roos, Gina, "JEDEC, iNEMI release tin whisker standard," Green SupplyLine , May 4, 2006.

"New Standards on Tin Whisker Mitigation," Circuits Assembly, vol. 17 no. 4, pp. 36, Apr. 2006.

Leidecker, Henning, and Brusse, Jay, "Tin Whiskers: A History of Documented Electrical System Failures," NASA, Apr. 2006.

Halvorson, Todd, "NASA Plans Partial Fix for Discovery Orbiter to Reduce ISS Risk," Florida Today, Apr. 27, 2006.

Parker, Richard, "More Than You Needed To Know About Tin Whiskers," SMTA/IMAPS Mini-Symposium, Indianapolis, IN, Apr. 24, 2006.

Dr. RoHS, "Dr RoHS: BGA solder balls and tin whiskers," Electronics Weekly , Apr. 19, 2006.

Rollins, William P., Pinsky, David A., Minter, Charles S., Toussaint, Gary, Das, Diganta, and Tyler, Donald, "Final Report on the Transformational Manufacturing Technology Initiative (TMTI) ManTech Research Project S1057: Tin Whisker Mitigation," Apr. 12, 2006.

"JESD201, Environmental Acceptance Requirements for Tin Whisker Susceptibility of Tin and Tin Alloy Surface Finishes," Arlington, VA: JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, Mar. 2006.

"JP002, Current Tin Whiskers Theory and Mitigation Practices Guideline," Arlington, VA: JEDEC Solid State Technology Association and Bannockburn, IL: IPC, Mar. 2006.

Hayashida, Yoshitou, Takahashi, Yoshiyuki, Ohno, Takao, and Shohji, Ikuo, "Whisker-Free Pb-Free Solder through Alloying," Nippon Kinzoku Gakkaishi/ Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals, vol. 70 no. 3, pp. 220-225, Mar. 2006.

Verdi, Fred, "GEAI Tin Whisker Industry Standard empfasis, pp. xx-xx, Mar. 2006.

Geren, David, "Reduction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS)," CineMag Application Note AN-105, Mar. 29, 2006.

Dunn, Barrie, "15-1/2 Years of Tin Whisker Growth - Results of SEM Inspections Made on Tin Electroplated C-Ring Specimens," ESTEC Materials Report 4562, Mar. 22, 2006.

Liang, J., Morand, G., Dariavach, N., and Shangguan, D., "Tin Whisker Formation Kinetics on Sn-Pb HASL Coating Layer Inside Plated Through Holes With Press-Fit Complaint Pins," 2006 11th International Symposium on Advanced Packaging Materials: Processes, Properties and Interface, Atlanta, GA, Mar. 15-17, 2006, pp. 41.

Osenbach, John, "Sn-Whiskers: Truths and Myths," 2006 Lead-Free Technology Workshop , San Antonio, TX, Mar. 12, 2006, pp. xx-xx.

Kayser, David, "http://www.agingaircraftconference.org/all_files/28/28b/28b-ppt.pdf"> "Lead-free Solder & Tin Whiskers Situation Summary," 9th Joint FAA/DoD/NASA Aging Aircraft Conference, Atlanta, GA, Mar. 6-9, 2006.

"Getting the Lead Out," Appliance Design, vol. xx no. x, pp. xx-xx, Feb. 2006.

DiBugnara, Ray, "Mitigating tin whisker risks," Green SupplyLine, Feb. 28, 2006.

Xu, Chen, Zhang, Yun, Fan, Chonglun, and Abys, Joseph A., "Thin Sn over Ni: A Practical And Effective Whisker Mitigation Strategy For Leadframe," IPC Printed Circuits Expo, APEX and the Designer Summit , Anaheim, CA, Feb. 8-10, 2006, pp. S04-01-1-S-4-01-7.

Smetana, Joe, and Gedney, Ron, "Tin Whisker Management Guidelines, Part 2," Circuits Assembly , vol. 17 no. 1, pp. 64-65, Jan. 2006.

Smetana, Joe, and Gedney, Ron, "Tin Whisker Management Guidelines, Part 2," Printed Circuit Design and Manufacture, vol. 23 no. 1, pp. 14, Jan. 2006.

"Requested Exemption from the requirements of Article 4(1) of Directive 2002/95/EC," Swatch, Jan. 12, 2006.

Spiegel, Rob, "Tin whisker debate roars on," Design News, vol. xx no. x, pp. xx-xx, Jan. 9, 2006.

2005: 0 books, 3 theses, 134 papers, and 25 web pages on tin whiskers

"Industry Groups Continue Focus on Tin Whiskers," CPMT Society Outlook , vol. 1, pp. 3-4, 2005.

Fang, Tong, Tin Whisker Risk Assessment Studies. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. 2005.

Fukuda, Yuki, Experimental Investigations of Whisker Formation on Tin Platings . Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. 2005.

McCullen, Jack, and Gupta, Vivek, "Sn-Whisker Test Standards Correlation to Market Segment Use Conditions," Lead-Free Magazine, vol. 5, 2005.

Meeh, Peter, "Immersion tin: a proven final finish for printed circuit boards providing reliable solderability and marginal formation of tin whiskers," Circuit World, vol. 31 no. 1, pp. 28-40, 2005.

Pinsky, David, "A Methodology to Evaluate Tin Whisker Risk Levels," technology today, 2005 Issue 3.

Pinsky, David, Rafanelli, Tony, and Rollins, Bill, "Partnering with Industry: Transitioning to Lead-Free Electronics," technology today, 2005 Issue 3.

Schroeder, Sabine, "Superior, whisker-reduced immersion tin technology," Circuit World , vol. 31 no. 4, pp. 42-46, 2005.

Sob, M., Pokluda, J., Cerny, M., Sandera, P., and Vitek, V., "Theoretical Strength of Metals and Intermetallics from First Principles," Materials Science Forum, vol. 482, pp. 33-38, 2005.

Tu, King-Ning, Suh, Jong-ook, Wu, Albert Tzu-Chia, Tamura, Nobumichi, and Tung, Chih-Hang, "Mechanism and Prevention of Spontaneous Tin Whisker Growth," Materials Transactions, vol. 46 no. 11, pp. 2300-2308, 2005.

Yu, H. C., Liu, S. H., and Chen, Chih, "Study of electromigration in thin tin film using edge displacement method," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 98, pp. 013540-1-013540-4, 2005.

"Tin Whiskers and Conversion to Pb-Free," Circuits Assembly, vol. 16 no. 12, pp. 38-40, Dec. 2005.

Kim, Kyung-Seob, Han, Wan-Ok, and Han, Sung-Won, "Whisker Growth on Surface Treatment in the Pure Tin Plating," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 34 no. 12, pp. 1579-1585, Dec. 2005.

Smetana, Joe, and Gedney, Ron, "Tin Whisker Management Guidelines," Circuits Assembly, vol. 16 no. 12, pp. 42, Dec. 2005.

Smetana, Joe, and Gedney, Ron, "Tin Whisker Management Guidelines," Printed Circuit Design and Manufacture, vol. 22 no. 12, pp. 14, 16-17, Dec. 2005.

Wolfgong, W. John, Ogden, Bob, Champaign, Robert, and Waller, Barbara, "Surface Oxidation as a Tin Whisker Growth Mechanism," Circuits Assembly, vol. 16 no. 12, pp. 24-27, Dec. 2005.

Minter, Charlie, "Robotic Solder Dip - A Key Technique for Mitigating Reliability Risk Posed by Tin Whiskers," DoD Diminishing Manufacturing Sources & Material Shortages (DMSMS) Workshop, San Antonio, TX, Dec. 13-15, 2005, pp. xx-xx.

Olsson, Jesper, ""The Formation of Whiskers on Electroplated Tin Containing Copper"," evertiq, Dec. 7, 2005.

Sengupta, Shirsho, Das, Diganta, Ganesan, Sanka, Pecht, Michael, Lin, T. Y., and Rollins, William, "Effects of Re-finishing of Terminations by Solder-Dipping on Plastic Quad Flatpack Electronic Parts," Proceedings of 7th Electronic Packaging Technology Conference, Volume 2, Singapore, Dec. 7-9, 2005, pp. 768-773.

"Comments on Test Methods & Criteria for Tin Whiskers in Surface Mount Passive Devices," EIA/ECA-CB22, Nov. 2005.

Boettinger, W. J., Johnson, C. E., Bendersky, L. A., Moon, K.-W., Williams, M. E., and Stafford, G. R., "Whisker and Hillock formation on Sn, Sn-Cu and Sn-Pb electrodeposits," Acta Materialia, vol. 53 no. 19, pp. 5033-5050, Nov. 2005.

Brusse, Jay, "Tin Whiskers Growing Inside -45 Year Old AF114 Germanium Transistors," Nov. 2005.

Reinbold, L., Chason, E., Jadhav, N., Kelly, V., Holmes, P., Shin, J. W., Chan, W. L., Kumar, K. S., and Barr, G., "Degradation in Sn Films due to Whisker Formation," Degradation Processes in Nanostructured Materials (Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, vol. 887), Boston, MA, Nov. 28-Dec. 1, 2005, pp. 197-207.

Moon, K.-W., Williams, M. E., Johnson, C. E., Stafford, G. R., Handwerker, C. A., and Boettinger, W. J., "The Formation of Whiskers on Electroplated Tin Containing Copper," PCB007, Nov. 21, 2005.

"Boeing 601 (f.k.a. Hughes HS 601)." (before Nov. 20, 2005)

"European directives vs. Tin Whiskers & Tin Pest," finishing.com . (before Nov. 20, 2005)

"Lead Free Product Testing," Trace Laboratories-East. (before Nov. 20, 2005)

"Lead Free Product Testing/Tin Whisker Testing," Trace Laboratories-East. (before Nov. 20, 2005)

"Lead-free: Whiskers on Tin," Tyco Electronics. (before Nov. 20, 2005)

"Qualification Procedure for Tin Whisker Formation in Lead-free Connector Terminal Finishes," Molex. (before Nov. 20, 2005)

"Tin Whisker Experience - Rocket Motor Initiator Failure Analysis." (before Nov. 20, 2005)

"UCLA Department of Materials Science and Engineering." (before Nov. 20, 2005)

"Whisker control plating process YWL SYSTEM," Yuken. (before Nov. 20, 2005)

Ando, Toshihiro, Shibata, Masamitsu, Okada, Seiichi, and Namasuya, Yoshikazu, "Stress Analysis and Accelerated Evaluation of Tin Whisker under Thermal Shock Stress," Murata. (before Nov. 20, 2005)

Boguslavsky, Irina, Bush, Peter, Kam-Lum, Elsa, Kwoka, Mark, McCullen, Jack, and Vo, Nick, "NEMI Sn Tin Whisker Project." (before Nov. 20, 2005)

Custer, Kevin, "Help... My MASTR II has lost receiver sensitivity." (before Nov. 20, 2005)

D'Agostino, Saverio, and Evans, Ken, "Tin Whiskers: 1 What Are They?," Electronic Parts Engineering . (before Nov. 20, 2005)

D'Agostino, Saverio, and Evans, Ken, "Tin Whiskers: 2 MER Whiskers: The Problem & Solution," Electronic Parts Engineering. (before Nov. 20, 2005)

D'Agostino, Saverio, and Evans, Ken, "Tin Whiskers: 3 Other Data" Electronic Parts Engineering. (before Nov. 20, 2005)

Dittes, M., Oberndorff, P., and Crema, P., "Whisker Root Cause and Respective Test Conditions." (before Nov. 20, 2005)

Dittes, Marc, Oberndorff, Pascal, Crema, Paolo, and Schroeder, Valeska, "The Effect of Temperature Cycling on Tin Whisker Formation." (before Nov. 20, 2005)

Galyon, George T., Plamer, Larry, "Tin Whisker Microstructural Analysis," IBM eSG. (before Nov. 20, 2005)

Kuhlkamp, Peter, "Lead(Pb)-Free Plating for Electronics and Avoidance of Whisker Formation," Atotech. (before Nov. 20, 2005)

Oberndorff, P., Dittes, M., and Crema, P., "Whisker Testing: Reality of Fiction?." (before Nov. 20, 2005)

Pinsky. David, and Lambert, Elizabeth, "Tin Whisker Risk Mitigation for High-Reliability Systems Integrators and Designers," Reliability Analysis Laboratory. (before Nov. 20, 2005)

Radman, John M., "Test Procedures for Determining the Amount of Tin Whisker Formation," Trace Laboratories-East. (before Nov. 20, 2005)

Sakamoto, Ichizo, "Whisker Test Methods of JEITA." (before Nov. 20, 2005)

Winterstein, Jonathan, "Tin Whiskers Studied by Scanning Electronic Microscopy." (before Nov. 20, 2005)

Xu, Chen, "Stress in Electroplated Sn: Its Measurement and Implication in Spontaneous Whisker Growth," Cookson Electronics. (before Nov. 20, 2005)

Mason, John, "European Space Agency frets over pure tin," Electronics Weekly , Nov. 11, 2005.

Mason, John, "European Space Agency Frets Over Pure Tin," Electronic News, Nov. 10, 2005.

"JESD22A121.01, Test Method for Measuring Whisker Growth on Tin and Tin Alloy Surface Finishes," JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, Oct. 2005.

Galyon, George, Palmer, Larry, and Gedney, Ron, "Theory closes in on causes of tin whiskers," Global SMT & Packaging, vol. 5 no. 9, pp. 10, 12-14, Oct. 2005.

Martel, Mike, "Focused on Tin Whiskers: Potential for Catastrophe?," Circuitnet , Oct. 17, 2005.

Moon, K.-W., Johnson, C. E., Williams, M. E., Kongstein, O., Stafford, G. R. Handwerker, C. A., and Boettinger, W. J., "Observed Correlation of Sn Oxide Film to Sn Whisker Growth in Sn-Cu Electrodeposit for Pb-Free Solders," Journal of Electronic Materials , vol. 34 no. 9, pp. L31-L33, Sept. 2005.

Quinnell, Richard A., "Tackling tin whisker test," Test & Measurement World, vol. 25 no. 8, pp. 79-80, Sept. 2005.

Hoffman, E. N., Barsoum, M. W., Wang, W., Doherty, R. D., and Zavaliangos, A., "On the Spontaneous Growth of Soft Metallic Whiskers," Proceedings of the Fifty-First IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Chicago, IL, Sept. 26-28, 2005, pp. 121-126.

"Tin Whiskers: Companies Taking Cover Under iNEMI Guidelines," Design News, vol. 60 no. 12, pp. xx, Sept 5, 2005.

Kushner, Arthur S., "Plating Clinic: Tin Whiskers," Products Finishing, vol. 69 no. 11, pp. 24,26-28, Aug. 2005.

Smetana, Joe, "Minimizing Tin Whiskers," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 19 no. 8, pp. xx-xx, Aug. 2005.

"Inadvertent Reactor Trip and Partial Safety Injection Due to Tin Whisker," United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC Information Notice 2005-25, Aug. 25, 2005.

"TO-220 Lead Free and RoHS Compliance Document," International Rectifier. Aug. 23, 2005.

Pease, Bob, "Bob's Mailbox," Electronic Design, vol. 53 no. 18, pp. 22, Aug. 18, 2005.

"Tin Whiskering Borders on Urban Legend," Design News, vol. 60 no. 11, pp. xx, Aug. 15, 2005.

Morris Jr., J. W., "Lead-Free Solder Issues in MIcroelectronics," 15th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes, Vail, CO, Aug. 7-10, 2005, pp. 129-131.

Spiegel, Rob, "Serious Doubts Among Engineers on Tin Whisker Testing," Design News , Aug. 5, 2005.

"JEDEC, iNEMI Update Tin Whisker and Lead-Free Surface Finish Guidelines," CircuiTree, vol. 18 no. 7, pp. xx-xx, July 2005.

Deshmukh, Rajan, "Tin Whiskers and the Impending RoHS Conversion to Lead-Free," empfasis, pp. 1-2, July 2005.

Fjelstad, Joe, "Tin Whiskers = a lead-free 'time bomb'?," Global SMT & Packaging, vol. 5 no. 6, pp. 4, June/July 2005.

Fukuda, Yuki, and Osterman, Michael, "Tin Whiskers: What's the Risk?," Lead-free Electronics, July 2005.

Sakuyama, Seiki, and Kutami, Michinori, "Substitute Materials for Complete Elimination of Hazardous Substances - Study of Whisker Growth on Lead-Free Plating," Fujitsu Scientific and Technical Journal, vol. 41 no. 2, pp. 217-224, July 2005.

Rizzo, Sam, "Evaluating tin whiskers," Green SupplyLine, July 18, 2005.

Liang, Jin, Li, Xiaodong, Xu, Zhi-Hui, and Shangguan, Dongkai, "Indentation Induced Tin Whisker Formation on Tin Plated Component Leads," Proceedings of the ASME/Pacific Rim Technical Conference and Exhibition on Integration and Packaging of MEMS, NEMS, and Electronic Systems: Advances in Electronic Packaging 2005, Part B, San Francisco, CA, July 17-22, 2005, pp. 1199-1205.

"Leadfree Solder and Tin Whiskers Program Guidance (draft)," Lead Free Soldering Summit, Philadelphia, PA, July 13-14, 2005.

Osterman, Michael, "CALCE Research on Risk Assessment, Mitigation, and Management for Pb-free Electronics," Lead Free Soldering Summit, Philadelphia, PA, July 13-14, 2005.

Daddona, Patricia, "Reactor Shutdown: Dominion Learns Big Lesson From A Tiny `tin Whisker'," The Day, July 4, 2005.

"Second ECTC iNEMI Tin Whisker Workshop," Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society Newsletter, vol. 28 no. 2, pp. 8-9, June 2005.

Lee, Miky, Hillman, Craig, and Kim, Duksoo, "Industry News: How to predict failure mechanisms in LED and laser diodes," Military & Aerospace Electronics, vol. 16 no. 6, pp. xx-xx, June 2005.

Song, Jenn-Ming, Lui, Truan-Sheng, Chang, Yea-Luen, and Chen, Li-Hui, "Tin whiskers of bulk solders generated under resonance," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 20 no. 6, pp. 1385-1388, June 2005.

"Testing for Tin Whisker Mitigation," Design News, June 27, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "High temps, stresses cause whiskers," Electronics Weekly, June 13, 2005.

"Potential Tin Whiskers on Printed Circuit Board Components," Westinghouse Nuclear Tech Bulletin TB-05-4, June 8, 2005.

McCullen, Jack,and Gupta, Vivek, "Sn-Whisker Test Standards Correlation to Market Segment Use Conditions," IPC/Soldertec Global 3rd International Conference on Lead Free Electronics, Barcelona, Spain, June 7-10, 2005, pp. xx-xx.

Zhang, Yun, "Can Thin Sn over Ni be an Answer to Tin Whiskers?," IPC/Soldertec Global 3rd International Conference on Lead Free Electronics, Barcelona, Spain, June 7-10, 2005, pp. xx-xx.

Spiegel, Rob, "iNEMI Releases Tests to ID Tin Whisker Problems," Electronic News , June 6, 2005.

Spiegel, Rob, "Tests spot tin whisker problems," Electronics Weekly, June 6, 2005.

"JESD22A121, Measuring Whisker Growth on Tin and Tin Alloy Surface Finishes," JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, May 2005.

"Recommendations on Lead-Free Finishes for Components Used in High-Reliability Products," iNEMI Tin Whisker User Group, Version 3, May 2005.

Cho, Sungil, Yu, Jin, Kang, Sung K., and Shih, Da-Yuan, "Oxidation Study of Pure Tin and its Alloys via Electrochemical Reduction Analysis," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 34 no. 5, pp. 635-642, May 2005.

Hunt, Chris, "Predicting Tin Whisker Growth," Microelectronics News, no. 21, pp. 3, Spring 2005.

Ding, Min, Su, Peng, and Chopin, S., "Effects of Trim and Form on the Microstructure and Whisker Growth Propensity of Sn Finish," 2005 Proceedings 55th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, Orlando, FL, May 31-June 3, 2005, pp. 452-456.

Galyon, G. T., Xu, C., Lal, S., Notohardjono, B., and Palmer, L., "The Integrated Theory of Whisker Formation - A Stress Analysis," 2005 Proceedings 55th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, Orlando, FL, May 31-June 3, 2005, pp. 421-428.

Oberndorff, P., Dittes, M., Crema, P., and Chopin, S., "Whisker Formation on Matte Sn Influencing of High Humidity," 2005 Proceedings 55th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, Orlando, FL, May 31-June 3, 2005, pp. 429-433.

Su, Peng, Ding, Min, and Chopin, Sheila, "Effects of Reflow on the Microstructure and Whisker Growth Propensity of Sn Finish," 2005 Proceedings 55th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, Orlando, FL, May 31-June 3, 2005, pp. 434-440.

Zhao, Jie-Hua, Su, Peng, Ding, Min, Chopin, Sheila, and Ho, Paul S., "Microstructure-Based Stress Modeling of Tin Whisker Growth," 2005 Proceedings 55th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, Orlando, FL, May 31-June 3, 2005, pp. 137-144.

Norvell, Robin, "JEDEC, iNEMI Releases Help Scratch Tin Whiskers," Circuits Assembly , vol. 16 no. 6, pp. xx-xx, May 25, 2005.

Roos, Gina, "iNEMI releases standard for tin whisker testing, updates lead-free surface finish guidelines," Green SupplyLine, May 25, 2005.

"JEDEC Releases Standard for Tin Whisker Testing and iNEMI User Group Updates Lead-Free Surface Finish Guidelines," PCB007, May 24, 2005.

Kao, Hui-Ju, Effect of Cu additives on Sn whisker formation and interfacial reaction of Sn(Cu) finishes. Master's Thesis for National Central University, Jhong-Li, Taiwan, May 23, 2005.

Lead Finish Material Candidates and Pros/Cons (before May 17, 2005)

Tin Whisker Mitigation - Adding Lead to Chip Size Components with Pure-Tin Terminals (before May 17, 2005)

Perton, Marc, "Tin whisker" crisis threatens global electronic systems (before May 17, 2005)

Cassette, Dennis J., "Lead-Free Solder," Department of the Air Force Airworthiness Advisory AA-05-01, May 9, 2005.

Minter, Charlie, "Tin Whiskers: A New DMSMS Issue," DMSMS COE Newsletter, vol. 3 no. 3, pp. 3-4, Apr. 2005.

Tin Whiskers (Tech Tip #2) (before Apr. 30, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Literature References: Tin Whisker Literature References (before Apr. 24, 2005)

What are Tin Whiskers? (before Apr. 24, 2005)

Gupta, Vivek, and McCullen, Jack, "Correlation of Proposed Sn-Whisker Test Standards to Market Segment Use Conditions," IPC/JEDEC 8th International Conference on Lead Free Electronic Components and Assemblies, San Jose, CA, Apr. 18-20, 2005, pp. xx-xx.

Hilty, Robert D., and Corman, Ned, "Tin Whisker Reliability Assessment by Monte Carlo Simulation," IPC/JEDEC 8th International Conference on Lead Free Electronic Components and Assemblies, San Jose, CA, Apr. 18-20, 2005, pp. xx-xx.

Liang, J., Li, X., Xu, Z., and Shangguan, D., "Nano-indentation Study on Whisker Formation on Tin Plated Component Leads," IPC/JEDEC 8th International Conference on Lead Free Electronic Components and Assemblies, San Jose, CA, Apr. 18-20, 2005, pp. xx-xx.

Woodrow, Thomas A., and Ledbury, Eugene A., "Evaluation of Conformal Coatings as a Tin Whisker Mitigation Strategy," IPC/JEDEC 8th International Conference on Lead-Free Electronic Components and Assemblies, San Jose, CA, Apr. 18-20, 2005, pp. xx-xx.

Testing for Tin Whisker Growth (before Apr. 16, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 1 (before Apr. 15, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 2 (before Apr. 15, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 4 (before Apr. 15, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 5 (before Apr. 15, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 6: Simulation of Whisker Growth (before Apr. 15, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center GSFC Experiments (before Apr. 15, 2005)

"Tin Whiskers." (Apr. 3, 2005)

"TW System Failures," NAVSEA, Apr. 3, 2005.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Photo of the Month (before Apr. 2, 2005)

"Tin Whisker Workshop." (Apr. 2, 2005)

"Nickel-coated Components Solve Electrical Problem," Nickel, vol. 20 no. 2, pp. 5, Mar. 2005.

"Tin whiskers - reducing the risk," LiveWire, no. 15, pp. xx-xx, Feb./Mar. 2005.

Jobb, Dean, "Nickel-coating Solves Electrical Problem: Nickel offers a solution to trimming 'tin whiskers'," Nickel, vol. 20 no. 2, pp. xx-xx, Mar. 2005.

Spiegel, Rob, "Crying Wolf or Seeing Real Whiskers?," Avnet Advantage, Mar. 2005.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Anecdote #1: 20 Years to Failure (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Anecdote #2: Tin Whiskers on Waveguide (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Anecdote #3: Field Failures Due to Tin Whiskers Breaking Loose from Matte Tin-Plated RF Enclosure Lids (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Anecdote #4- Tin Whiskers on Shield of GPS Units (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Anecdote #5: Field Failures Due to Tin Whiskers on Circuit Breaker Contacts (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Basic Info/FAQ (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Photo Gallery (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Sn-Pb Whiskers (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Specification Language Related to Pure Tin (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Summary of Specification Language for Pure Tin (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Tin Whisker (and Other Metal Whisker) Homepage (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Whisker Failures (before Mar. 26, 2005)

Bolin, Dick, and Bosze, Wayne, "RoHS and Tin Whisker Issues for Resistive Components," Proceedings of the 25th Symposium for Passive Components, Palm Springs, CA, Mar. 21-24, 2005, pp. 102-107.

"Tin wisker might delay RoHS schedule," Industry News, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Mar. 18, 2005.

Spiegel, Rob, "Threat of Tin Whiskers Haunts Rush to Lead-Free," Electronic News , Mar. 17, 2005.

Spiegel, Rob, "Tin whiskers haunt rush to Pb-free," Electronics Weekly, Mar. 17, 2005.

Klerk, Jacob, "Sn Plating and Whiskers," Mar. 9, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "Tin industry backs Pb-free reliability," Electronics Weekly, Mar. 2, 2005.

Rickett, B., Elmgren, P., Flowers, G., Gale, S., and Suhling, J., "Whisker Formation Potential in Pb-Free Electroplated Connector Finishes," Circuits Assembly, vol. 16 no. 2, pp. 52-59, Feb. 2005.

Schewe, Phillip F., "Physics Update," Physics Today, vol. 58 no. 2, pp. 9, Feb. 2005.

Welzel, U., Ligot, J., Lamparter, P., Vermeulen, A. C., and Mittemeijer, E. J., "Stress analysis of polycrystalline thin films and surface regions by X-ray diffraction," Journal of Applied Crystallography, vol. 38 no. 1, pp. 1-29, Feb. 2005.

Buetow, Mike, "HP, Sony Seek RoHS Exemptions," Feb. 28, 2005.

"HP says RoHS making whiskers problem worse," evertiq, Feb. 22, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "Tin whiskers brush with RoHS," Electronics Weekly, Feb. 18, 2005.

Chen, Keming, and Wilcox, Geoffrey D., "Observations of the Spontaneous Growth of Tin Whiskers on Tin-Manganese Alloy Electrodeposits," Physical Review Letters, vol. 94 no. 6, pp. 066104-1 to 066104-4, Feb. 18, 2005.

Williams, Alun, "Tin whiskers brush with RoHS," Electronics Weekly, Feb. 18, 2005.

Bush, Steve, "Tin whiskers have a brush with RoHS Directive over exemption," Electronics Weekly, Feb. 16, 2005.

Roos, Gina, "Trace Labs offers tin whisker testing," Green SupplyLine, Feb. 10, 2005.

"Will electronic equipment fail from tin-whisker shorts?," SourceESB, Feb. 9, 2005.

Tin Whiskers (before Feb. 2, 2005)

Arendt, N., Baron, F., Benz, V., Letterer, M., Merkle, H., Schroeder, S., and Wessling, B., "A New Whisker-Reducing Immersion Tin Technology," CircuiTree , vol. 18 no. 1, pp. 10, 12, 14, Jan. 2005.

Galyon, George T., and Palmer, L., "An Integrated Theory of Whisker Formation: The Physical Metallurgy of Whisker Formation and the Role of Internal Stress," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing,", vol. 28 no. 1, pp. 17-40, Jan. 2005.

Galyon, George T., "Annotated Tin Whisker Bibliography and Anthology," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing,", vol. 28 no. 1, pp. 94-122, Jan. 2005.

Gedney, Ronald W., "Foreward Special Issue on Tin Whiskers," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing,", vol. 28 no. 1, pp. 2, Jan. 2005.

Hilty, Robert D., Corman, Ned, and Herrmann, Hank, "Electrostatic Fields and Current-Flow Impact on Whisker Growth," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 28 no. 1, pp. 75-84, Jan. 2005.

Lal, Sudarshan, and Moyer, Thomas D., "Role of Intrinsic Stresses in the Phenomena of Tin Whiskers in Electrical Connectors," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing," ,vol. 28 no. 1, pp. 63-74, Jan. 2005.

Osenbach, John W., Shook, Richard L., Vaccaro, Brian T., Potteiger, Brian D., Amin, Ahmed N., Hooghan, K. N., Suratkar, P., and Ruengsinsub, P., "Sn Whiskers: Material, Design, Processing, and Post-Plate Reflow Effects and Development of an Overall Phenomenological Theory," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing,", vol. 28 no. 1, pp. 36-62, Jan. 2005.

Sakamoto, Ichizo, "Whisker Test Methods of JEITA Whisker Growth Mechanism for Test Methods," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing,", vol. 28 no. 1, pp. 10-16, Jan. 2005.

Vo, Nick, Kwoka, Mark, and Bush, Peter, "Tin Whisker Test Standardization," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing,", vol. 28 no. 1, pp. 3-9, Jan. 2005.

Whiteman, Lee, "Lead Free Analytical Services," emphasis, pp. 4, 6, Jan. 2005.

Wickman, Martin, Fry, Tony, Gohil, Dipak, and Hunt, Chris, "Developing a Test Method to Characterise Internal Stress in Tin Coatings: Phase 2," NPL Report DEPC-MPR 014, Jan. 2005.

Xu, Chen, Zhang, Yun, Fan, Chonglun, and Abys, Joseph A., "Driving Force for the Formation of Sn Whiskers: Compressive Stress-- Pathways for Its Generation and Remedies for Its Elimination and Minimization," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing,", vol. 28 no. 1, pp. 31-35, Jan. 2005.

Zhang, Wan, Egli, Andre, Schwager, Felix, and Brown, Neil, "Investigation of Sn-Cu Intermetallic Compounds by AFM: New Aspects of the Role of Intermetallic Compounds in Whisker Formation," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing,", vol. 28 no. 1, pp. 85-93, Jan. 2005.

"Trace Laboratories-Central Announces Their New Tin Whisker Testing Program (iNEMI-Specified)," Trace Laboratories. Jan. 26, 2005.

Forno, Richard, "Tin Whiskers: The Next Y2K Problem?," Inforwarrior, Jan. 20, 2005.

"When Electronics Get Five O'Clock Shadow," Jan. 5, 2005.

2004: 0 books, 0 theses, 83 papers, and 1 web page on tin whiskers

"Metallic Whisker Sources," Worldwide Environmental Services, 2004.

"NEMI issues revised tin whisker test requirements," TIN World , no. 7, pp. 17, 2004.

"Suppression of Tin Whisker Growth through Optimized Tin Plating Chemistry Formulation Technistan EP," Technic. (2004)

Hutchinson, Bevis, Oliver, James, Nylen, Margareta, and Hagstrom, Joacim, "Whisker Growth from Tin Coatings," Materials Science Forum, vol. 467-470, pp. 465-470, 2004.

Moyer, Thomas D., "Designed Experiment to Determine the Reliability of Various Commercial Plating Baths and the Key Factors Affecting Whisker Formation," FCI, 2004.

Schroeder, Valeska, "HP experience with tin whisker inspection training," Hewlett-Packard, 2004.

Whitlaw, Keith, Egli, Andre, and Toben, Mike, "Preventing whiskers in electrodeposited tin for semiconductor lead frame applications," Circuit World, vol. 30 no. 2, pp. 20-24, 2004.

Tin Whiskers 2004.

Garrou, Phil, and Gedney, Ron, "Tin Whiskers: An Industry Perspective," Advanced Packaging, vol. 13 no. 12, pp. 14, Dec. 2004.

Amato, Ivan, "Tin Whiskers: The Next Y2K Problem?," Fortune, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Dec. 29, 2004.

Sriyarunya, Anocha, Tondtan, Jiraporn, and Bansal, Dhiraj, "Matte Tin (Sn) Plating: Whisker Growth Study," 2004 Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, Dec. 8-10, 2004, pp. 281-288.

Goldsmith, Steven, "Agere Confirms Mitigation of Tin Whiskers by Nickel," EMU, vol. 18 no. 11, pp. 6-8, Dec. 2004.

"Control of Whisker Growth in Tin Alloy Coatings," ST Microelectronics Application Note AN2035, Nov. 2004.

Cooke, Mike, "Shaving the whiskers for lead-free production," European Semiconductor, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Nov. 2004.

Galyon, George, Smetana, Joe, and Vo, Nick, "Cause of Tin Whiskers Remains Elusive," Lead-free Electronics , vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Nov. 2004.

Chason, Eric, Reinbold, Lucine, and Kumar, Sharvan, "Whisker Formation in Sn Coatings on Cu," Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Volume 851, Materials for Space Applications, Boston, MA, Nov. 29-Dec. 3, 2004, pp. 239-244.

"Whisker Woes," Air Safety Week, vol. 18 no. 45, pp. xx-xx, Nov. 22, 2004.

Verdi, Fred W., "Electroplated Tin and Tin Whiskers in Lead Free Electronics," Nov. 5, 2004.

"Shaving the whiskers for lead-free production," European Semiconductor, vol. 26 no. 11, pp. 17, Nov. 1, 2004.

Baliga, John, "Can Nickel Barriers Eliminate Tin Whiskers?," Semiconductor International, vol. 27 no. 12, pp. 38, Nov. 1, 2004.

Arendt, N., Baron, F., Benz, V., Letterer, M., Merkle, H., Schroeder, S., Wessling, B., "A Superior Whisker-Reducing Immersion Tin Technology," OnBoard Technology, vol. xx no. xx, pp. 30-32, Oct. 2004.

"Whisker Formation on Tin Plated Cu based Leadframes: Results and Conclusions," Oct. 29. 2004.

"Whisker Formation on Tin Plated FeNi42: Results and Conclusions," Oct. 29, 2004.

Dittes, Marc, Oberndorff, Pascal, Crema, Paolo, and Chopin, Sheila, "A Two Step Approach for the Release of Lead Free Component Finishes with Respect to Whisker Risk," IPC/JEDEC 7th International Conference on Lead Free Electronic Components and Assemblies, Frankfurt, Germany, Oct. 20-22, 2004.

Hugel, W., Kirchner, V., Keller, R., Schimitzek, R., Krinke, J., Guber, M., Welzel, U., and Mittemeijer, E. J., "Results from Detailed Investigations of the Propensity of Whisker Growth Under Different Conditions," IPC/JEDEC 7th International Conference on Lead Free Electronic Components and Assemblies, Frankfurt, Germany, Oct. 20-22, 2004.

Jeong, Seyoung, Lee, Sung-Ki, Kim, Namseog, Yoshikuni, Nakadaira, Choi, Heekook, and Oh, Seyong, "Mitigation of Whisker by Reflow in Matte Sn Finished Alloy42 Lead Frame Package," IPC/JEDEC 7th International Conference on Lead Free Electronic Components and Assemblies, Frankfurt, Germany, Oct. 20-22, 2004.

Letterer, Michael, "Whisker-Reducing Immersion Tin Technology," IPC/JEDEC 7th International Conference on Lead Free Electronic Components and Assemblies, Frankfurt, Germany, Oct. 20-22, 2004.

Schetty, Rob, "Minimization of Tin Whisker Growth in Pb-Free Component Production Applications," IPC/JEDEC 7th International Conference on Lead Free Electronic Components and Assemblies, Frankfurt, Germany, Oct. 20-22, 2004.

Xu, Chen, Zhang, Yun, Fan, Conglun, Walsh, E., and Abys, Joseph A., "An Innovative Whisker Reduction/Elimination Solution," IPC/JEDEC 7th International Conference on Lead Free Electronic Components and Assemblies , Frankfurt, Germany, Oct. 20-22, 2004.

"Elimination of Lead from Electrical and Electronic Equipment - the Dilemma of Tin-Whisker Growth," Eurocomp, no. 7, pp. 3-6, Autumn 2004.

Koyano, Hidekatsu, "Current Situation of Lead-Free Solder Plating and Prevention of Tin Whisker," Hyomen Gijutsu (Journal of the Surface Finishing Society of Japan) , vol. 55 no. 9, pp. 586-589, Sept. 2004.

Kuhlkamp, Peter "Bleifreie galvanische Beschichtung von elektronischen Bauteilen unter Vermeidung der Whiskerbildung," Galvanotechnik, vol. 95 no. 9, pp. 2119-2132, Sept. 2004.

Reed, Greg, "Test procedures needed for tin whisker failures," Test & Measurement World, vol. 24 no. 8, pp. A2, Sept. 2004.

Vardaman, E. Jan, "Tin Whiskers: An Old Problem Reappears," Circuits Assembly, vol. 15 no. 9, pp. 22-23, Sept. 2004.

Fukuda, Yuki, Fang, Tong, Pecht, Michael, and Osterman, Michael, "Effect of Heat Treatment on Tin Whisker Growth," 2004 SMTA International Conference Proceedings, Chicago, IL, Sept. 26-30, 2004, pp. 717-723.

Galyon, George T., "A History of Tin Whisker Theory: 1946 to 2004." 2004 SMTA International Conference Proceedings, Chicago, IL, Sept. 26-30, 2004, pp. 696-706.

Osenbach, J. W., Shook, R. L., Vaccaro, B. T., Amin, A., Potteiger, B. D., and Hooghan, K. N., "Tin Whisker Mitigation: Application of Post Mold Nickel Underplate on Copper Based Lead Frames and Effects of Board Assembly Reflow," 2004 SMTA International Conference Proceedings, Chicago, IL, Sept. 26-30, 2004, pp. 724-734.

Rickett, B., Elmgren, P., Flowers, G., Gale, S., and Suhling, J., "Potential for Whisker Formation in Lead-Free Electroplated Connector Finishes," 2004 SMTA International Conference Proceedings, Chicago, IL, Sept. 26-30, 2004, pp. 707-716.

Tanaka, Toru, and Yamasaki, Mikio, "Modeling of Fuses for Melting Time and Fusing Current Analysis," 26th Annual International Telecommunications Energy Conference, Chicago, IL, Sept. 19-23, 2004, pp. 671-675.

"Tin Whiskers," Sept. 14, 2004.

"NEMI issues revised tin whisker acceptance test requirements," emsnow, Sept. 6, 2004.

Roos, Gina, "NEMI revises tin whisker test requirements," Green SupplyLine , Sept. 2, 2004.

Roos, Gina, "NEMI revises tin whisker test requirements," eeProductCenter , Sept. 2, 2004.

"The Facts about Tin Whiskers," Electronic Components, Assemblies & Materials Association, EIA/ECA-CB19, Aug. 2004.

"Tin Whisker Specs Defined," Metals and Interconnects, vol. 18 no. 7, pp. xx, Aug. 2004.

Galyon, G. T., and Gedney, Ron, "Avoiding Tin Whisker Reliability Problems," Circuits Assembly, vol. 15 no. 8, pp. 26-31, Aug. 2004.

Kushner, Arthur S., "Plating Clinic: Tin Whiskers Again," Products Finishing, vol. 68 no. 11, pp. 22-26, Aug. 2004.

Buetow, Mike, "NEMI Revises Tin Whisker Guidance," Circuits Assembly, vol. 15 no. 9, pp. xx-xx, Aug. 31, 2004.

Sampson, Michael J., and Leidecker, Henning, "NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Comments Regarding JEDEC Ballot JC-14-04-226," NASA, Aug. 31, 2004.

"NEMI Issues Revised Tin Whisker Acceptance Test Requirements," NEMI, Aug. 30, 2004.

"NEMI issues revised tin whisker acceptance test requirements," PCB007, Aug. 30, 2004.

Sriyarunya, Anocha, and Bansal, Dhiraj, "Matte Tin (Sn) Plating Of Semiconductor Devices - Whisker Growth Study," Proceedings of IPC/JEDEC 6th International Conference on Lead-Free Electronic Assemblies and Components, Singapore, Aug. 18-20, 2004, pp. xx-xx.

"New TWI proposed project: Tin Whiskers - reducing the risk," TWI LiveWire, issue 14, Summer 2004.

"The problem of 'tin whiskers' cannot be neglected," Dataweek , vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, July 28, 2004.

"Tin Whisker Acceptance Test Requirements," NEMI Tin Whisker Users Group, July 28, 2004.

Smetana, Joe, "NEMI Tin Whisker User Group," July 28, 2004.

"NEMI Group Releases Draft Proposal of Tin Whisker Acceptance Test Requirements," CircuiTree, vol. 17 no. 6, pp. xx-xx. June 2004.

"Whisker Formation Test Report," Phoenix Passive Components. June 2004.

Grupen-Shemansky, Melissa, "Overcoming Tin Whisker Problems on Lead-free Packaging," Advanced Packaging, vol. 13 no. 6, pp. xx-xx, June 2004.

Pinsky, David, Osterman, Michael, and Ganesan, Sanka, "Tin Whiskering Risk Factors," IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies, vol. 27 no. 2, pp. 427-431, June 2004.

Zhang, Y., Fan, C., Xu, C., Khaselev, O., and Abys, J. A., "Tin Whisker Growth - Substrate Effect: Understanding CTE Mismatch and IMC Formation," CircuiTree, vol. 17 no. 6, pp. xx, June 2004.

Lal, Sudarshan, and Moyer, Thomas D., "Making the Lead-free Transition: The Enigma of Tin Whiskers in Connector Applications," AESF SUR/FIN 2004, Chicago, IL, June 28-July 1, 2004, pp. 234-253.

Barsoum, M. W., Hoffman, E. N., Doherty, R. D., Gupta, S., and Zavaliangos, A., "Driving Force and Mechanism for Spontaneous Metal Whisker Formation," Physical Review Letters, vol. 93 no. 20, pp. 206104-1-206104-4, June 25, 2004.

Gedney, Ron, Smetana, Joe, Vo, Nhat, and Galyon, George, "NEMI Tin Whisker Projects." Second International Conference on Lead Free Electronics, Amsterdam, Netherlands, June 21-23, 2004, pp. xx-xx.

"iNEMI Tin Whisker Accelerated Test Project Test Method for Evaluating Tin Whisker Growth on Plated Surfaces." International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, June 17, 2004.

Liu, S. H., Chen, Chih, Liu, P. C., and Chou, T., "Tin whisker growth driven by electrical currents," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 95 no. 12, pp. 7742-7747, June 15, 2004.

Osenbach, J. W., Shook, R. L., Vaccaro, B. T., Potteiger, B. D., Amin, A., and Ruengsinsub, P., "Lead Free Packaging and Sn-Whiskers," 2004 Proceedings 54th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, Volume 2, Las Vegas, NV, June 1-4, 2004, pp. 1314-1324.

Zaccari, Joseph, "Lead-Free Component Finishes - Problems and Mitigation," 2004 Medical Electronics Symposium Conference Proceedings, Bloomington, MN, May 19-20, 2004, pp. xx-xx.

"Lead Free Tin Whiskering Study: Grayhill DIP Switches," Grayhill, May 11, 2004.

Schetty, Rob, "Electrodeposited Tin Properties & Their Effect on Component Finish Reliability," 2004 International Conference on Business of Electronic Product Reliability and Liability, Apr. 27-30, 2004, pp. 29-34.

Bjorndahl, William D., Singleton, Leon, Griese, Richard, and Chong, Frank, "Detection of Tin Plating and Tin Whisker Mitigation," 42nd Annual Reliability Physics Symposium, Apr. 25-29, 2004, pp. 563-564.

"Interim Recommendations on Lead-Free Finishes for Components Used in High- Reliability Products,", NEMI, Mar. 2004.

Gurav, Abhijit, and Stacy, Bruce, "Whiskering Evaluation of Capacitors Mounted with Lead Free Solders," IPC/JEDEC 5th International Conference on Lead Free Electronic Components and Assemblies, Mar. 2004.

Winterstein, J. P., LeBret, J. B., and Norton, M. G., "Characteristics of tin whiskers formed on sputter-deposited films-an aging study," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 19 no. 3, pp. 689692, Mar. 2004.

"Tin Whisker Growth Evaluation Results," Kemet, Mar. 30, 2004.

Osenbach, J. W., Shook, R. L., Vaccaro, B. T., Amin, A., Potteiger, B. D., and Hooghan, K. N., "The Effects of Board Attachment Processing on Sn Whisker Formation on Electroplated Matte-Sn on Cu Alloy Lead Frames," Proceedings of IPC/JEDEC Lead Free Conference, San Jose, CA, Mar. 18, 2004, pp. xx-xx.

"Shaving the Risk of Tin Whiskers," NITON Application Bulletin , Mar. 17, 2004.

"Tin "Noodles"???." Mar. 17, 2004.

Xu, Chen, Fan, Chonglun, Zhang, Yun, and Abys, Joseph A., "Whisker Prevention," OnBoard Technology, vol. xx no. xx, pp. 30-34, Feb. 2004.

Kostic, Andrew D., "Tin Whiskers - A "New" Problem," Feb. 25, 2004.

Bush, P., Jones, G. L., and Boguslavsky, I., "Relationships of Copper Diffusion and Surface Oxide Formation to Tin Whisker Growth," Proceedings of the Technical Conference (CDROM) IPC/SMEMA Council APEX 2004 Conference, Anaheim, CA, Feb. 24-26, 2004, pp. PS-07-1-PS-07-05.

Zhang, Y., Fan, C., Xu, C., Khaselev, O., and Abys, J. A., "Tin Whisker Growth - Substrate Effect Understanding CTE Mismatch and IMC Formation," Proceedings of the Technical Conference (CDROM) IPC/SMEMA Council APEX 2004 Conference, Anaheim, CA, Feb. 24-26, 2004, pp. S27-2-1-S27-2-20.

Hunt, Christopher, "Pitfalls on the Path to Lead-Free," SMART Group 6th Annual Lead-Free Seminar and Table-top Exhibition, High Wycombe, United Kingdom, Feb. 3, 2004.

Zaccari, Joe, "Lead-Free Component Finishes: Problems and Mitigation," 2004 IEEE Microelectronics Reliability and Qualification Workshop, Manhattan Beach, CA, Feb. 3-4, 2004, pp. xx-xx.

2003: 0 books, 0 theses, 59 papers, and 0 web pages on tin whiskers

Choi, W. J., Lee, T. Y., Tu, K. N., Tamura, N., Celestre, R. S., MacDowell, A. A., Bong, Y. Y., and Nguyen, Luu, "Tin whiskers studied by synchrotron radiation scanning X-ray micro-diffraction," Acta Materialia, vol. 51 no. 20, pp. 6253-6261, 2003.

Oberndorff, P. J. T. L., Dittes, M., and Petit, L., "Intermetallic Formation in Relation to Tin Whiskers." 2003.

"Lead-Free solder failure mechanisms: What are Tin Whiskers?," LiveWire, no. 11, pp. xx-xx, .Nov./Dec. 2003.

"NEMI Team Recommends Three Test Conditions for Evaluating Tin Whisker Growth," CircuiTree, vol. 16 no. 12, pp. xx-xx, Dec. 2003.

Lau, John H., and Pan, Stephen H., "3D Nonlinear Stress Analysis of Tin Whisker Initiation on Lead-Free Components," Journal of Electronic Packaging, vol. 125 no. 4, pp. 621-624, Dec. 2003.

Leidecker, Henning, Greenwell, Chris, and Brusse, Jay, "Whiskers of Tin-Lead (Sn-Pb) on REFLOWED Die Attach Solder Used in the Manufacture of a Laser Diode Array," NASA, Dec. 2003.

Dittes, Marc, Oberndorff, Pascal, Crema, Paolo, and Schroeder, Valeska, "Tin Whisker Formation in Thermal Cycling Conditions," 2003 Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, Dec. 10-12, 2003, pp. 183-188.

Egli, Andre, Zhang, Wan, and Schwager, Felix, "New Approaches to Whisker Free Tin Deposits," 2003 5th Conference on Electronics Packaging Technology, Dec 10-12, 2003, pp. 55-58.

"Tin Whiskers," Electronics Manufacture and Test, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Dec. 7, 2003.

Livingston, Henry, "GEB-0002: Reducing the Risk of Tin Whisker-Induced Failures in Electronic Equipment," BAE Systems, Dec. 1, 2003.

Brusse, Jay, "A Discussion of the Significance of Metal Whisker Formation to the High Reliability Community," Nov. 2003.

Vo, Nhat, Boguslavsky, Irina, and Bush, Peter, "NEMI Recommends Standard Test Methods to Assess Propensity for Tin Whisker Growth," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 17 no. 11, pp. 36-41, Nov. 2003.

Whiteman, Lee, "Tin Whiskers Part III," Empfasis, Nov. 2003.

"Qualification of Lead Free Component Plating Finishes," Nov. 3, 2003.

Ellis, Tim, "Tin Whiskers Part II," National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence, Oct. 2003.

Okada, Seiichi, Higuchi, Shoichi, and Ando, Toshihiro, "Field Reliability Estimation of Tin Whiskers Generated by Thermal-Cycling Stress," Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium (CARTS) Europe , Oct. 2003, pp. xx-xx.

Wickham, Martin, Fry, Tony, and Hunt, Chris, "Developing a Test Method to Characterise Internal Stress in Tin Coatings: Phase 1," NPL Report MATC(A)148, Oct. 2003.

"NEMI team recommends three test conditions for evaluating tin whisker growth," PCB007, Oct. 6, 2003.

Oosterhout, Hans van, Hendrikx, Jos, Duis, Patrick, and Ocket, Tom, "Lead free manufacturing," Tyco Electronics Report Project Nr. B033353, Oct. 3, 2003.

"BMPCOE Strives to Mitigate Tin Whiskers," COTS Journal, vol. xx no. xx, pp. 60-63, Sept. 2003.

Ellis, Tim, "Tin Whiskers," National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence, Sept. 2003.

Levine, Bernard, "Facing a Lead-Free Future," Semimfg.com, pp 31-54, Sept. 2003.

Boguslavsky, Irina, "NEMI Tin Whisker Test Project," SMTA International, Chicago, IL, Sept. 25, 2003.

Boguslavsky, Irina, Bush, Peter, Kam-Lum, Elsa, Kwoka, Mark, McCullen, Jack, Spalding, Keithm Vo, Nick, and Williams, Maureen, "NEMI Tin Whisker Test Method Standards," 2003 SMTA International Conference Proceedings, Chicago, IL, Sept. 21-25, 2003, pp. 670-675.

"Close Shave," Printed Circuit Design and Manufacture, vol. 20 no. 8, pp. 10, Aug. 2003.

Woodrow, Tom, Rollins, Bill, Nalley, Pat, and Ogden, Bob, "Tin Whisker Mitigation Study: Phase I. Evaluation of Environments for Growing Tin Whiskers," Aug. 1, 2003.

Galyon, George T., "NEMI Tin Whisker Modeling Project Interim Report," NEMI, July 21, 2003.

"Three organizations from US, Europe, Japan cooperating to develop tin whisker test method," PCB007, July 18, 2003.

"JEITA Whisker Test Method Project," IPC and SOLDERTEC Global Conference, Brussels, June 2003.

Lal, Sudarshan, "Tin Whiskers: Their Appearance & Minimization In Electronic Connectors," AESF SUR/FIN Proceedings, Milwaukee, WI, June 23-26, 2003, pp. 267-288.

Tsuji, Kiyotaka, "Role of Grain-boundary-free Energy & Surface-free Energy for Tin Whisker Growth," AESF SUR/FIN Proceedings, Milwaukee, WI, June 23-26, 2003, pp. 169-186.

Whitlaw, Keith, and Crosby, Jeff, "An Investigation into Methods for Minimising Tin Whisker Growth," AESF SUR/FIN Proceedings, Milwaukee, WI, June 23-26, 2003, pp. 289-298.

Abbott, Don, and Romm, Doug, "TI Tin Whisker and Pb-Free Finish Evaluations," Lead Free Electronics Workshop, Marlborough, MA, June 19, 2003.

Bush, Steve, "Fears of tin whisker growth in solder trimmed by tests," Electronics Weekly, June 11, 2003.

"Back Up Block 1 Whisker on Cu," June 6, 2003.

"Back Up Block 2 Whisker on NiFe," June 6, 2003.

Sun, Qian, and Selvaduray, Guna, "Understanding and Minimizing Tin Whiskers," San Jose State University, June 4, 2003.

Phillips, Edward H., "Inside Avionics," Aviation Week & Space Technology, vol. 158 no. 22, pp. 51, June 2, 2003.

"Tin Whisker Info "Brief"," On Semiconductor Application Note TND311, May 2003.

Dittes, Marc, "Leadframe Packages with Matt Pure Tin Electroplated Surface Finish," Infineon Technology Technical Note, May 2003.

Sun, Qian, "Understanding and Minimization of Tin Whiskers," Spring 2003.

Dittes, M., Obendorff, P., and Petit, L., "Tin Whisker Formation - Results, Test Methods and Countermeasures," 2003 Proceedings 53rd Electronic Components & Technology Conference , New Orleans, LA, May 27-30, 2003, pp. 822-826.

Lau, John H., Pan, Stephen H., and Xu, Chen, "3D Large Deformation and Nonlinear Stress Analyses of Tin Whisker Initiation and Growth on Lead-Free Components," 2003 Proceedings 53rd Electronic Components & Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 27-30, 2003, pp. 692-697.

Boguslavsky, Irina, "NEMI Sn Tin Whisker Project," JISSO/PROTEC Forum, Japan, May 15-16, 2003.

Kushner, Arthur S., "Plating Clinic: Tin Whiskers all over the Place," Products Finishing , vol. 67 no. 7, pp. p. 16-18, Apr. 2003.

Eng, G., Gutierrez, D. A., Hoskinson, C. T., Tueling, M. B., and Stupian, G. W., "Review of Aerospace pre- and post-Project 1998 Tin Whisker Work," The Aerospace Corporation, Apr. 30, 2003.

Jeffers, Basil S., "Capacitor Tin Whisker White Paper - Is It Tinned Yet?," IPC/JEDEC Third International Conference on Lead-Free Electronic Components and Assemblies , San Jose, CA, Apr. 23-24, 2003, pp. 220-229.

Zaccari, J. S., "Pure Tin Plated Leads - Problems and Mitigation," IPC/JEDEC Third International Conference on Lead-Free Electronic Components and Assemblies , San Jose, CA, Apr. 23-24, 2003, pp. 258-261.

"HP's Position Statement on Tin-based Plating for Lead-free Components," Apr. 7, 2003.

Streeter, Donald E., "Rapidly delivering war-winning capability," CTMA Symposium: Lead-Free Solder, Apr. 2, 2003.

LeBret, J. B., and Norton, M. G., "Electron microscopy study of tin whisker growth," Journal of Materials Research, vol. 18 no. 3, pp. 585-593, Mar. 2003.

Schetty, Rob, "Tin Whisker Studies- Experimentation & Mechanistic Understanding," Plating & Surface Finishing, vol. 90 no. 3, pp. 48-51, Mar. 2003.

Blum, Werner, Kullmann, Rainer, Wegner, Gerald L., and Kuhl, Reiner W., "Pure Tin: Differentiated View on the Risk of Whisker Formation," 23rd Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium, Scottsdale, AZ, Mar. 31-Apr. 3, 2003, pp. 148-154.

Boguslavsky, Irina, "Recrystallization Principles Applied to Whisker Growth in Tin." IPC SMEMA Council APEX 2003, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 31-Apr. 2, 2003, pp. S12-4-1 to S12-4-10.

Okada, Seiichi, "View on Countermeasures for Sn Whiskers for Lead-free Soldering," Murata, Mar. 13, 2003.

Romm, Douglas W., Abbott, Donald C., Grenney, Stu, and Khan, Muhammad, "Whisker Evaluation of Tin-Plated Logic Component Leads," Texas Instruments Application Report SZZA037A, Feb. 2003.

Long, Mark, "Adopting a Hardened Approach to Space-based System Designs," e-inSITE, Feb. 5, 2003.

Verton, Dan, "U.S. urged to add more protection to GPS systems," Computerworld , vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Jan. 24, 2003.

"100% Sn Plating Whisker Growth Study," AMD, Jan 10, 2003.

2002: 0 books, 0 theses, 40 papers, and 0 web pages on tin whiskers

Lau, John H., and Pan, Stephen H., "3D Nonlinear Stress Analysis of Tin Whisker Initiation on Lead-Free Components," 2002 NEPCON West - Fiberoptic Expo Conference Proceedings , 2002, pp. 293-297.

Oberndorff, P. J. T. L., Dittes, M., Petit, L., Chen, C. C., Klerk, J., and Kluizenaar, E. E. de, "Tin Whiskers on Lead-free Platings," 2002 Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, 2002, pp. xx-xx.

Pinsky, David, "Tin Whisker Application Specific Risk Assessment Algorithm," Reliability Analysis Laboratory, 2002.

Prasad, Swaminath, "Sn Whiskers Standards Committee Status," Apex 2002, 2002, pp. xx-xx.

Press, Joseph Henry, "Storms from the Sun: The Emerging Science of Space Weather," The National Academies Press, 2002.

"Legs 1, 2 & 3: Olin 194 8lead SOIC Molded/Singulated." Nov. 2002.

Klubochkin, A. V., Budueva, V. G., and Sakulin, B. M., "Special Features of Nucleation and Growth of Tin Crystals in the Temperature Range of Its Polymorphic Transformation," Metal Science and Heat Treatment, vol. 44 no. 11-12, pp. 505-509, Nov. 2002.

Schroeder, Valeska, "Effects of room temperature aging on assembled and non-assembled platings," IPC, Nov. 2002, pp. xx-xx.

Spalding, Keith, "Tin Whisker Test - Phase II Passives." Nov. 2002.

Boguslavsky, Irina, and Williams, Maureen, "NEMI Sn Whisker Modeling Group Part 1: Overview and Results," IPC/NEMI Meeting, New Orleans, LA, Nov. 7, 2002, pp. xx-xx.

Boguslavsky, Irina, and Bush, Peter, "NEMI Tin Whisker Test Group Phase 2 DOE Results," IPC 2002, New Orleans, LA, Nov. 7, 2002, pp. xx-xx.

Prasad, Swaminath, "Sn Whiskers Standards Committee: An Overview," IPC 2002, New Orleans, LA, Nov. 7, 2002.

Williams, Maureen, and Boguslavsky, Irina, "NEMI Sn Whisker Modeling Group Part 2: Future Work," IPC/NEMI Meeting, New Orleans, LA, Nov. 7, 2002, pp. xx-xx.

Siplon, Jocelyn P., Ewell, Gary J., Frasco, Eric, Brusse, Jay A., and Gibson, Tom, "Tin Whiskers On Discrete Components: The Problem," Proceedings of the 28th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, Phoenix, AZ, Nov. 3-7, 2002, pp. 421-434.

Davy, Gordon, "Relay Failure Caused by Tin Whiskers," Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, Oct. 2002.

Elmgren, Pete, "Tin Whisker Formation on Lead-Free Coatings," Molex, Oct. 2002.

Brusse, Jay, Ewell, Gary, and Siplon, Jocelyn, "Tin Whiskers: Attributes and Mitigation," CARTS Europe, Oct. 15-17, 2002, pp. 221-233.

"The Relation between Whisker and Stress," Hynix Semiconductor. Sept. 2002.

Garshasb, Masoud, "Analysis of tin- and nickel-plated copper wire failures for quality improvement," Wire Journal International, vol. 35 no. 9, pp. 86-90, Sept. 2002.

Boguslavsky, Irina, "Whiskers: Truth and Mystery," NEMI/IPC Lead-Free Symposium, Montreal, Canada, Sept. 19, 2002, pp. xx-xx.

Osterman, M., "Mitigation Strategies for Tin Whiskers," Aug. 28, 2002.

"Position Paper on Risks to High-Reliability Electronics and Associated Hardware from Pure Tin Coatings," July 25, 2002.

"Basler Power Supplies," Westinghouse Nuclear Tech Bulletin TB-02-5, July 12, 2002.

Sheng, George T. T., Hu, C. F., Choi, W. J., Tu, K. N., Bong, Y. Y., and Nguyen, Luu, "Tin whiskers studied by focused ion beam imaging and transmission electron microscopy," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 92 no. 1, pp. 64-69, July 1, 2002.

Brusse, Jay, "Tin Whisker Observations on Pure Tin-Plated Ceramic Chip Capacitors," Proceedings of AESF SUR/FIN 2002, Chicago, IL, June 24-28, 2002, pp. 45-61.

Brusse, Jay, "Tin Whisker Observations on Pure Tin-Plated Ceramic Chip Capacitors (presentation)," Proceedings of AESF SUR/FIN 2002, Chicago, IL, June 24-28, 2002, pp. 45-61.

Brusse, Jay, "Tin Whisker Observations on Pure Tin-Plated Ceramic Chip Capacitors," Proceedings of AESF SUR/FIN 2002, Chicago, IL, June 24-27, 2002, pp. 296-312.

Schetty, Rob, "Tin Whisker Studies - Experimentation & Mechanistic Understanding," Proceedings of AESF SUR/FIN 2002, Chicago, IL, June 24-27, 2002, pp. 124-134.

Whitlaw, Keith, and Crosby, Jeff, "An Empirical Study into Whisker-Growth of Tin & Tin Alloy Electrodeposits," Proceedings of AESF SUR/FIN 2002, Chicago, IL, June 24-27, 2002, pp. 136-147.

Williams, M. E., Johnson, C. E., Moon, K.-W., Stafford, G. R., Handwerker, C. A., and Boettinger, W. J., "Whisker Formation on Electroplated Sn-Cu," Proceedings of AESF SUR/FIN 2002, Chicago, IL, June 24-27, 2002, pp. 148-159.

"Risks of Conductive Whiskers in High-Reliability Electronics and Associated Hardware from Pure Tin Coatings," June 19, 2002.

"Tin Whisker Experiences," June 19, 2002.

Vicenzo, A., Cavallotti, P. L., and Crema, P., "Electrochemical Control of Whisker Growth on Electrodeposited Tin Coatings," Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, vol. 80 no. 3, pp. 79-84, May 2002.

Xu, Chen, Zhang, Yun, Fan, Chonglun, and Abys, Joseph A., "Understanding Whisker Phenomenon: The Driving Force for Whisker Formation," CircuiTree, vol. 15 no. 5, pp. xx, May 2002.

Choi, W. J., Lee, T. Y., Tu, K. N., Tamura, N., Celestre, R. S., MacDowell, A. A., Bong, Y. Y., Nguyen, L., and Sheng, George T. T., "Structure and Kinetics of Sn Whisker Growth on Pb-Free Solder Finish," 2002 Proceedings 52nd Electronic Components & Technology Conference , San Diego, CA, May 28-31, 2002, pp. 628-633.

Long, Mark, "Processor Problem Continues To Dog Boeing Satellites," e-inSITE, May 14, 2002.

Levine, Bernard, "Will 'Tin Whiskers' Grow When You Get the Lead Out?," Electronic News, Mar. 25, 2002.

Brusse, Jay A., Ewell, Gary J., and Siplon, Jocelyn P. "Tin Whiskers: Attributes and Mitigation," 22nd Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium, New Orleans, LA, Mar. 25-29, 2002, pp. 67-80.

Brusse, Jay, Ewell, Gary, and Siplon, Jocelyn, "Tin Whiskers: Attributes and Mitigation (presentation)," 22nd Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium, New Orleans, LA, Mar. 25-29, 2002, pp. 67-80.

"NEMI's Tin Whisker Project reports initial test results, reviews modeling efforts at APEX 2002," PCB007, Feb. 8, 2002.

2001: 1 book, 1 thesis, 14 papers, and 1 web page on tin whiskers

Buschow, K. H. J., Cahn, Robert, Flemings, Merton C., Ilschner, Bernhard, Kramer, Edward J., Mahajan, Subhash, and Veyssiere, Patrick, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Volume 10. (Katz, J. D., "Whiskers," pp. 9570-9574.) Pergamon, 2001. ISBN 0080431526. $7,295.00 list price.

Lee, Taekyeong, Electromigration and Solid State Aging of Flip Chip Solder Joints and Analysis of Sn Whisker on Lead-frame. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2001.

Moon, K.-W., Williams, M. E., Johnson, C. E., Stafford, G. R., Handwerker, C. A., and Boettinger, W. J., "The Formation of Whiskers on Electroplated Tin Containing Copper," Proceedings of the Fourth Pacific Rim International Conference on Advanced Materials and Processing, Sendai, Japan, 2001, pp. 1115-1118.

Schetty, Rob, "Minimization of tin whisker formation for lead-free electronics finishing," Circuit World, vol. 27 no. 2, pp. 17-20, 2001.

Xu, Chen, Zhang, Yun, Fan, Chonglun, Vysotskaya, Anna, Abys, Joseph A., Hopkins, Leslie, and Stevie, Fred, "Understanding Whisker Phenomenon - Mechanisms Study," 2001 SMTA International Conference Proceedings, Chicago, IL, Sept. 30-Oct. 4, 2001, pp. xx-xx.

Kadesch, Jong S., and Brusse, Jay, "The Continuing Dangers of Tin Whiskers and Attempts to Control Them with Conformal Coating." EEE Links, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, July 2001.

Gagliano, Robert A. and Fine, Morris E., "Growth of n-Phase Scallops and Whiskers in Liquid Tin-Solid Copper Reaction Couples," JOM, vol. 53 no. 6, pp. 33-38, June 2001.

Brusse, Jay, "Survey of MIL Ceramic Capacitor Manufacturers Regarding Termination Finishes," NEPAG, May 23, 2001.

Stevens, Craig, "Relay Failures Induced by the Growth of Tin Whiskers: A Case Study," IEEE Boston Reliability Chapter 38th Annual Spring Reliability Symposium , May 16, 2001.

Sampson, Michael J., "The NASA EEE Parts Assurance Group (NEPAG)," NASA, May 1, 2001.

"Electrodeposited Pb-free Solder and Whisker Prevention," Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, vol. 106 no. 2, pp. 490, Mar./Apr. 2001.

"Hughes Satellite Failures Continue To Plague New Owner," Electronics Weekly, Apr. 24, 2001.

Bidin, Rahamat, Tagapulot, Rosemarie, Lao, Carl Nichelle D., and Manalac, Rodel, "Lead-Free Packaging", Advanced Packaging, vol. 10 no. 4, pp. xx-xx, Apr. 2001.

Houghtaling, Pamela, "Putting a `Whisker-Free' Face on Electronic Parts," NIST Tech Beat , vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Mar./Apr. 2001.

Custer, Kevin, "Help... My Receiver has lost Sensitivity!", March 2001.

Yen, Andrew C., Hongyu, Zheng, Wynn, Richard Thet, Yaohui, Zhang, and Wang, Lingfai, "A Method of Investigating Fine Shorting Whiskers Within a Leadframe Molded Package," IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, vol. 24 no. 1, pp. 99-103, Feb. 2001.

Barthelmy, Michael, "Problems with Pure Tin Coatings," NASA GSFC Materials Engineering Branch, Jan. 17, 2001.

2000: 0 books, 0 theses, 9 papers, and 2 web pages on tin whiskers

Kadesch, Jong S., "Effects of Conformal Coat on Tin Whisker Growth," EEE Links, vol. 6 no. 1, pp. 20-22, 2000.

Zhang, Yun, Xu, Chen, Fan, Chonglun, and Abys, Joseph A., "Tin Whisker Growth and Prevention," Journal of SMT, vol. 13 no. 4, pp. 1-9, Oct. 2000.

"Tin whiskers a problem with immersion tin pwb finishes? ," finishing.com. Oct. 3, 2000.

The Trouble with Tin: Get the Lead Out! (before Fall 2000)

The Trouble with Tin: Get the Lead Out! (before Fall 2000)

Blair, Alan, "Analyze This...," Plating & Surface Finishing, vol. 87 no. 9, pp. 47, Sept. 2000.

Hampshire, Bill, and Hymes. Les, "Shaving Tin Whiskers," Circuits Assembly, vol. 11 no. 9, pp. 50,52,54, Sept. 2000.

"Hughes Seeks To Salvage Satellites," Television Digest with Consumer Electronics, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Sept. 11, 2000.

Kadesch, Jong S., and Leidecker, Henning, "Effects of Conformal Coat on Tin Whisker Growth," Proceedings of IMAPS Nordic, Sept. 10-13, 2000, pp. 108-116.

Foust, Jeff, "Mexican Satellite Failure: Possible Link to Past Problem," Space.com, Aug. 30, 2000.

"Technical Service Bulletin: Tin Whiskers in MOD10 Relays." GE Power Management, MOD10 SB1-00.03.27, Mar. 27, 2000.

1999: 0 books, 0 theses, 2 papers, and 0 web pages on tin whiskers

"Tin whiskers in electronic," finishing.com. Dec. 16, 1999.

Felps, Bruce, "'Whiskers' Caused Satellite Failure: Galaxy IV Outage Blamed On Interstellar Phenomenon," Wireless Week, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, May 17, 1999.

1998: 1 book, 0 theses, 17 papers, and 0 web pages on tin whiskers

Lee, Dong Nyung, "Spontaneous growth mechanism of tin whiskers," Seoul National University. 1998.

Licari, James J., and Enlow, Leonard R., Hybrid Microcircuit Technology Handbook: Materials, Processes, Design, Testing and Production, 2nd Edition. Westwood, NJ: Noyes Publications, 1998. ISBN 0815514239. $180.00 list price.

Brusse, Jay, "Tin Whiskers: Revisiting an Old Problem." EEE Links, vol. 4 no. 4, pp. 5-7, Dec. 1998.

Kadesch, Jong S., and Brusse, Jay, "Electromagnetic Relay Manufacturer Survey," Dec. 1998.

Sampson, Michael J., "Tin Whiskers: Amendment," NASA Parts Advisory NA-044A, Dec. 17, 1998.

Sampson, Michael J., "Tin Whiskers," NASA Parts Advisory NA-044, Oct. 23, 1998.

Nordwall, Bruce D., , "Filter Center," Aviation Week & Space Technology, vol. 149 no. 7, pp. 47, Aug. 17, 1998.

Pressman, Aaron, "Galaxy IV Satellite Loss Explained - Tiny Space Crystals Responsible," Aug. 12, 1998.

Lee, B.-Z., and Lee, D. N., "Spontaneous growth mechanism of tin whiskers," Acta Materialia, vol. 46 no. 10, pp. 3701-3714. June 12, 1998.

Rogers, Adam, "The Day the Beepers Died," Newsweek, vol. 131 no. 22, pp. 48, June 1, 1998.

Thibodeau, Patrick, "Satellite failure is a wake-up call to users," Computerworld , vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, May 25, 1998.

Coatney, Mark, "PanAmSat's $100 Million Problem," May 21, 1998.

"Glitch silences millions of pagers," Star-Bulletin, May 20, 1998.

Karon, Tony, "Rogue Satellite Blanks Pagers," Time, May 20, 1998.

Macavinta, Courtney, "The Great Galaxy 4 Satellite Pager Disaster," CNET News.com, May 20, 1998.

Thibodeau, Patrick, "Satellite glitch spawns big headaches," Computerworld, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, May 20, 1998.

Kuznetsov, V. I., and Tulin, V. A., "Synchronization of high-frequency vibrations of slipping phase centers in a tin whisker under microwave radiation," Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, vol. 86 no. 4, pp. 745-750, Apr. 1998.

Ewell, G. J., and Moore, F., "Tin Whiskers and Passive Components: A Review of the Concerns," 18th Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium, Huntington Beach, CA, Mar. 9-13, 1998, pp. 222-228.

1997: 0 books, 0 theses, 5 papers, and 0 web pages on tin whiskers

Burstner, Gerhard, and Frohlich, Eckhard, "Electroplating versus Hot- Dipped Tinning a Comparison of Application - Experiences," CARTS-Europe '97 Symposium, Prague, 1997, pp. xx-xx.

Hill, Lisa, "SEM Imaging of Tin Whiskers," 1997.

Smogunov, A. N., Kurkina, L. I., Kurganskii, S. I., and Farberovich, O. V., "Electronic structure of simple metal whiskers," Surface Science, vol. 391 no. 1-3, pp. 245-251, Nov. 26, 1997.

Colin, J., Grilhe, J., and Junqua, N., "Surface instabilities of a stressed cylindrical whisker," Philosophical Magazine A: Physics of Condensed Matter, Structure, Defects and Mechanical Properties, vol. 76 no. 4, pp. 793-805, Oct. 1997.

Endo, M, Higuchi, S., Tokuda, Y., and Sakabe, Y., "Elimination of Whisker Growth on Tin Plated Electrodes", Proceedings of the 23rd International symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, Santa Clara, CA, Oct. 27-31, 1997, pp. 305-311.

1996: 0 books, 0 theses, 3 papers, and 0 web pages on tin whiskers

"MAUDE Adverse Event Report," 1996.

Zhang, Y., Breck, G., Humiec, F., Murski, K., and Abys, A., "An Alternative Surface Finish for Tin/Lead Solders: Pure Tin," Surface Mount International Proceedings of the Technical Program, Volume II, San Jose, CA, Sept. 10-12, 1996, pp. 641-649.

Zhang, Y., and Abys, J. A., "An Alternative Surface Finish for Tin/Lead solders - Pure Tin," Proceedings AESF SUR/FIN '96, Cleveland, OH, June 10-13, 1996, pp. 223-246.

1995: 0 books, 0 theses, 2 papers, and 0 web pages on tin whiskers

Kuhl, Reiner, and Mills, Sherrye, "Assuring Whisker-free Components," Surface Mount Technology (SMT) , vol.9 no. 6, pp. 48-49, June 1995.

MacKay, Colin A., "Method of inhibiting tin whisker growth," U. S. Patent 5,393,573, Feb. 28, 1995.

1994: 0 books, 0 theses, 2 papers, and 0 web pages on tin whiskers

Arutyunov, K. Yu., Danilova, N. P., and Nikolaeva, A. A., "Galvanomagnetic properties of quasi-one-dimensional superconductors," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 76 no. 10, pp. 7139-7141, Nov. 15, 1994.

Tu, K. N., "Irreversible processes of spontaneous whisker growth in bimetallic Cu-Sn thin-film reactions," Physical Review B, vol. 49 no. 3, pp. 2030-2034, Jan. 15, 1994.

1993: 1 book, 0 theses, 1 paper, and 0 web pages on tin whiskers

Tan, A. C., Tin and Solder Plating in the Semiconductor Industry. New York: Chapman & Hall, 1993. ISBN 0-412-48240-1.

McDowell, Mark E., "Tin Whiskers: A Case Study," Aerospace Applications Conference , Jan. 31-Feb. 5, 1993, pp. 207-215.

1992: 0 books, 0 theses, 2 papers, and 0 web pages on tin whiskers

Stupian, G. W., "Tin Whiskers in Electronic Circuits," Aerospace Report No. TR-92 (2925-7), Dec. 20, 1992.

Park, Hyun Soo, "Requirements to Preclude the Growth of Tin Whiskers," NASA Memo no. ASA Parts Project Office-Code 310, Goddard space Flight Center to QR/Director, Reliability, Maintainability, and Quality Assurance Divisin, Feb. 14, 1992.

1991: 1 book, 0 theses, 1 paper, and 0 web pages on tin whiskers

Fukuda, Mitsuo, Reliability and Degradation of Semiconductor Lasers and LEDs. Boston: Artech House, 1991. ISBN 0890064652.

Durney, Larry, "PF finishing clinic," Products Finishing, vol. 55 no. 6, pp. 18, 20, Mar. 1991.

1990: 0 books, 0 theses, 3 papers, and 0 web pages on tin whiskers

Cunningham, Kathleen M., and Donahue, Michael P., "Tin Whiskers: Mechanism of Growth and Prevention," 4th International SAMPE Electronics Conference, Volume 4, Albuquerque, NM, June 12-14, 1990. pp. 569-575.

Bandyopadhyay, A. K., and Sen, S. K., "A study of intermetallic compound formation in a copper-tin bimetallic couple," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 67 no. 8, pp. 3681-3688, Apr. 15, 1990.

Selcuker, Ahmet, and Johnson, Michael, "Microstructural Characterization of Electrodeposited Tin Layer in Relation to Whisker Growth", 10th Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium , San Francisco, CA, Mar. 28-29, 1990, pp. 196-199.

1989: 0 books, 0 theses, and 1 paper on tin whiskers

Corbid, L., "Constraints on the Use of Tin Plate in Miniature Electronic Packages," 3rd International SAMPE Electronics Conference, Volume 3, Los Angeles, CA, June 20-22, 1989, pp. 773-779.

1988: 0 books, 0 theses, and 1 paper on tin whiskers

Dunn, B. D., "Mechanical and Electrical Characteristics of Tin Whiskers with Special Reference to Spacecraft Systems," European Space Agency (ESA) Journal, vol. 12, pp. 1-17, Jan. 14, 1988.

1987: 0 books, 0 theses, and 5 papers on tin whiskers

Baker, Richard G., "Conclusion: Whisker Growth," Plating and Surface Finishing, vol. 74 no. 11, pp. 12, 66, Nov. 1987.

Baker, Richard G., "Spontaneous Metallic Whisker Growth," Plating and Surface Finishing , vol. 74 no. 10, pp. 10, Oct. 1987.

Dunn, B. D., "A Laboratory Study of Tin Whisker Growth," European Space Agency (ESA) STR-223, Sept. 1987.

Gabe, D. R., "Whisker growth on tin electrodeposits," Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, vol. 65 no. 3, pp. 115, Aug. 1987.

Halimi, R., Chpilevski, E. M., Gorbatchevski, D. A., and Yazitchenko, C. A., "Formation de "Whiskers" et de "Hillocks" sur la Surface des Couches Minces de Cu/Sn," Thin Solid Films, vol. 150 no. 2/3, pp. 357-368, July 6, 1987.

1986: 0 books, 0 theses, and 4 papers on tin whiskers

Poker, D. B., Schubert, J., and Stritzker, B., "Ion-induced Growth of Whiskers on Sn Films, Beam-Solid Interactions and Transient Processes (Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings, Volume 74), Dec. 1-4, 1986, pp. 529-534.

Nordwall, Bruce D., "Air Force Links Radar Problems to Growth of Tin Whiskers," Aviation Week & Space Technology, vol. 124 no. 26, pp. 65, 67, 69, June 20, 1986.

"Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations Tin Wiskers Problems, Causes, and Solutions," Food and Drug Administration, Mar. 14, 1986.

"ITG Subject: Tin Whiskers - Problems, Causes, and Solutions," Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Public Health Service Food and Drug Administration *ORA/ORO/DEIO/IB*, Mar. 14, 1986.

1985: 0 books, 0 theses, and 0 papers on tin whiskers

1984: 0 books, 0 theses, and 5 papers on tin whiskers

Singh, Prabjit, and Ohring, Milton, "Tracer study of diffusion and electromigration in thin tin films," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 56 no. 4, pp. 899-907, Aug. 15, 1984.

Endicott, Duane W., and Kisner, Kim T., "A Proposed Mechanism for Metallic Whisker Growth," Proceedings of the 71st American Electroplaters Society SUR/FIN '84, New York, NY, July 16-19, 1984, Session J - Electronics I, pp. 1-20.

Gorbunova, K. M., and Glazunova, V. K., Present State of the Problem of Spontaneous Growth of Whisker Crystals on Electrolytic Coatings," Protection of Metals (English translation of Zaschita Metallov), vol. 20 no. 3, pp. 269-282, May-June 1984.

Gaidukov, Yu. P., "Electronic properties of whiskers," Soviet Physics Uspekhi, vol. 27 no. 4, pp. 256-272, Apr. 1984.

Mizuishi, Ken'ichi, "Some aspects of bonding-solder deterioration observed in long-lived semiconductor lasers: Solder migration and whisker growth," Journal of Applied Physics, vol.55 no.2, pp. 289-295, Jan. 15, 1984.

1983: 0 books, 0 theses, and 2 papers on tin whiskers

"High-Speed, Non-Whiskering Tin for Semiconductor Packages," Products Finishing, vol. 47 no. 12, pp. 80, Sept. 1983.

Kawanaka, Ryusuke, Fujiwara, Kenzo, Nango, Shigeyuki, and Hasegawa, Tomoharu, "Influence of Impurities on the Growth of Tin Whiskers," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 22 no. 6, pp. 917-922, June 1983.

1982: 0 books, 0 theses, and 1 paper on tin whiskers

Kakeshita, Tomoyuki, Shimizu, Ken'ichi, Kawanaka, Ryusuke, and Hasegawa, Tomoharu, "Grain size effect of electro-plated tin coatings on whisker growth," Journal of Materials Science, vol. 17 no. 9, pp. 2560-2566, Sept. 1982.

1981: 0 books, 0 theses, and 0 papers on tin whiskers

1980: 0 books, 0 theses, and 1 paper on tin whiskers

Fujiwara, Kenzo, and Kawananka, Ryusuke, "Observation of the tin whisker by micro-Auger electron spectroscopy," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 51 no. 12, pp. 6231-6237, Dec. 1980.

1979: 0 books, 0 theses, and 0 papers on tin whiskers

1978: 0 books, 0 theses, and 2 papers on tin whiskers

Gluck, P., "On Current Carrying Superconducting Tin Whiskers," Physics Letters A , vol. 66 no. 5, pp. 425-426, June 12, 1978.

Hada, Yoshikatsu, Marikawa, Osamu, and Togami, Hideki, "Study of Tin Whiskers on Electromagnetic Relay Parts," Proceedings 26th Relay Conference, Stillwater, OK, Apr. 25-25, 1978, pp. 9-1 to 9-5.

1977: 0 books, 0 theses, and 4 papers on tin whiskers

Bader, W. G., "Identification of Fused Tin Coatings On Integrated Circuit Device Leads," Plating and Surface Finishing, vol. 64 no. 8, pp. 56-57, Aug. 1977.

Smith, George A., "How to Avoid Metallic Growth on Electronic Hardware," Circuits Manufacturing, vol. 17 no. 7, pp. 66,68,70-72, July 1977.

Zakraysek, L., "Whisker Growth From a Bright Acid Tin Electrodeposit," Plating and Surface Finishing, vol. 64 no. 3, pp. 38-43, Mar. 1977.

Cook Jr., J. W., Davis, W. T., Chandler, J. H., and Skove, M. J., "Effect of stress on the superconducting transition temperature in indium, indium-alloy, tin, and tin-alloy whisker samples," Physical Review B , vol. 15 no. 3, pp. 1357-1369, Feb. 1, 1977.

1976: 0 books, 0 theses, and 4 papers on tin whiskers

Dunn, B. D., "Whisker Formation on Electronic Materials." ESA Scientific and Technical Review, vol. 2 no. 1, pp. 1-22, 1976.

Dunn, B. D., "Whisker Formation on Electronic Materials," Circuit World, vol. 2 no. 4, pp. 32-40, July 1976.

Diehl, R. P, and Cifaldi, N. A., "Eliminate Whisker Growth on Contacts by Using a Tin Alloy Plate," Insulation/Circuits, vol. 22 no. 4, pp. 37-39, Apr. 1976.

Lindborg, U., "A Model for the Spontaneous Growth of Zinc, Cadmium, and Tin Whiskers," Acta Metallurgica, vol. 24 no. 2, pp. 181-186, Feb. 1976.

1975: 0 books, 0 theses, and 2 papers on tin whiskers

Mayer, James W., Poate, John M., and Tu, King-Ning, "Thin Films and Solid-Phase Reactions," Science, New Series, vol. 190 no. 4211, pp. 228-234, Oct. 17, 1975.

Sabbagh, N. A. J., and McQueen, H. J., "Tin Whiskers: Causes & Remedies," Metal Finishing, vol. 73 no. 3, pp. 27-31, Mar. 1975.

1974: 0 books, 0 theses, and 3 papers on tin whiskers

Chaudhari, P., "Hillock growth in thin films," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 45 no. 10, pp. 4339-4346, Oct. 1974.

Britton, S. C., "Spontaneous Growth of Whiskers on Tin Coatings: 20 Years of Observation," Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, vol. 52, pp. 95-102, Apr. 3, 1974.

Morris, R. B., and Bonfield, W., "The Crystallography of Alpha-Tin Whiskers," Scripta Metallurgica , vol. 8, pp. 231-236, Mar. 1974.

1973: 0 books, 1 thesis, and 1 paper on tin whiskers

Jafri, A., "Fighting Whisker Growth in the Communication Industry," Plating, vol. 60 no. 4, pp. 358-361, Apr. 1973.

Sabbagh, N. A. J., Tin Whisker Growth in the Communication Industry. Master's Thesis for Sir George Williams University, Montreal, Canada, Apr. 1973.

1972: 0 books, 1 thesis, and 3 papers on tin whiskers

Kehrer, H.-P., and Zaminer, Christian, "Crystal Growth - Growth of Tin Whiskers in the Scanning Electron Microscope," 1972.

Overcash, D. R., Stillwell, E. P., Skove, M. J., and Davis, J. H., "Deformation Twinning in Zn, Sn, and Bi Single Crystal Whiskers", Philosophical Magazine, vol. 25 no. 6, pp. 1481-1488, 1972.

Chandler, Gary Jesse Howard, Growth of Whiskers in the Indium-Tin Alloy System and the effect of Elastic Strain on Tc in alpha Indium-Tin. Master's Thesis for Clemson University, Clemson, SC, Aug. 1972.

Rothberg, Barbara D., "Superconductivity and Mechanical Twinning of Tin Whiskers," Philosophical Magazine, vol. 25 no. 6, pp. 1473-1480, June 1972.

1971: 0 books, 0 theses, and 2 papers on tin whiskers

Overcash, D. R., Watlington, C. L., Skove, M. J., and Stillwell, E. P., "Temperature Dependence of the Critical Current in Tin and Indium Whiskers," Physica, vol. 55, no. xx, pp. 317-323, Oct. 1971.

Glazunova, V. K., and Gorbunova, K. M., "Spontaneous Growth of Whiskers from Electrodeposited Coatings," Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 10 no. 1, pp. 85-90, June 1971.

1970: 1 book, 0 theses, and 2 papers on tin whiskers

Levitt, Albert P., Whisker Technology. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1970. ISBN 471-53150-2.

Kehrer, H.-P., and Kadereit, H. G., "Tracer Experiments on the Growth of Tin Whiskers," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 16 no. 11, pp. 411-412, June 1, 1970.

Key, P. L., "Surface Morphology of Whisker Crystals of Tin, Zinc and Cadmium," Proceedings - 1970 20th Electronic Components Conference, Washington, D. C., May 13-15, 1970, pp. 155-160.

1969: 0 books, 0 theses, and 1 paper on tin whiskers

Furutu, Noboru, and Hamamura, Kenji, "Growth Mechanism of Proper Tin-Whisker," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 8 no. 12, pp. 1404-1410, Dec. 1969.

1968: 0 books, 0 theses, and 2 papers on tin whiskers

Rozen, M., "Practical Whisker Growth Control Methods," Plating, vol. 55 no. 11, pp. 1155-1160, Nov. 1968.

Bouton, G. M., and Bader, W. G., "Migration and Whisker Growths of Tin and Solders Induced on Thin Metal Films by Direct Current and Heat," 1968 Electronic Components Conference , Washington, D. C., May 8-10, 1968, pp. 135-140.

1967: 0 books, 0 theses, and 3 papers on tin whiskers

"Whisker-free Tin Coatings for Electronic Components," Tin and its Uses , no. 74, pp. 5, 1967.

Smith, J. F., "Whisker Growth on Electrodeposited Tin," Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, vol. 45, pp. 9-11, 1967.

Ellis, W. C., "Whisker Crystals Grown from Solder Terminations in an Electrotransport Process," Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 1 no. 4, pp. 204-206, Oct. 1967.

1966: 0 books, 0 theses, and 3 papers on tin whiskers

Berry, R. W., Bouton, G. M., Ellis, W. C., and Engling, D. E., "Growth of Whisker Crystals and Related Morphologies by Electrotransport," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 9 no. 7, pp. 263-265, Oct. 1, 1966.

Ellis, W. C., "Morphology of Whisker Crystals of Tin, Zinc, and Cadmium Grown Spontaneously from the Solid," Transactions of the Metallurgical Society of AIME , vol. 236 no. xx, pp. 872-875, June 1966.

Arnold, S. M., "Repressing the Growth of Tin Whiskers," Plating, vol. 53 no. 1, pp. 16-19, Jan. 1966.

1965: 0 books, 0 theses, and 2 papers on tin whiskers

Powell, B. E., and Skove, M. J., "Elastic Strength of Tin Whiskers in Tensile Tests," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 36 no. 4, pp. 1495-1496, 1965.

Furuta, Noboru, "Growing Process of Kinked Tin Whiskers" Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 4 no. 2, pp. 155-156, Feb. 15, 1965.

1964: 0 books, 0 theses, and 3 papers on tin whiskers

"Tin-Nickel Alloy Plating Does Not Grow Whiskers in Five Years," Tin and its Uses, no. 64, pp. 15, 1964.

Britton, S. C., and Clarke, M., "Effects of Diffusion from Brass Substrates into Electrodeposited Tin Coatings on Corrosion Resistance and Whisker Growth," 6th International Metal Finishing Conference, London, United Kingdom, May 25-29, 1964, pp. 205-211.

Pitt, Charles H., and Henning, Robert G., "Pressure-Induced Growth of Metal Whiskers," Journal of Applied Physics , vol. 35 no. 2, pp. 459-460, Feb. 1964.

1963: 0 books, 0 theses, and 2 papers on tin whiskers

Gilman, J. J., The Art and Science of Growing Crystals. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1963.

Glazunova, V. K., and Kudryavtsev, N. T., "An Investigation of the Conditions of Spontaneous Growth of Filiform Crystals on Electrolytic Coatings," Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, vol. 36 no. 3, pp. 543-550, Mar. 1963.

1962: 0 books, 0 theses, and 1 paper on tin whiskers

Glazunova, V. K., "A Study of the Influence of Certain Factors on the Growth of Filamentary Tin Crystals," Soviet Physics - Crystallography, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 616-618, Mar.-Apr. 1962.

1961: 0 books, 0 theses, and 1 paper on tin whiskers

"Tin-Nickel versus Metal "Whiskers"," Tin and its Uses, no. 52, pp. 8, 1961.

1960: 0 books, 0 theses, and 3 papers on tin whiskers

Brenner, S. S., "Metal "Whiskers"," Scientific American, vol. 203 no. 1, pp. 64-72, July 1960.

Sines, George, "Filamentary Crystals grown from the Solid Metal," Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, vol. 15 no. 7, pp. 1199-1210, July 1960.

Meakin, J. D., and Klokholm, E., "Self-Diffusion in Tin Single Crystals," Transactions of the Metallurgical Society of AIME, vol. 218, pp. 463-466, June 1960.

1959: 0 books, 0 theses, and 1 paper on tin whiskers

Nadgornyi, E. M., Osip'yan, Yu. A., Perkas, M. D., and Rozenberg, V. M., x "Filamentary Crystals with Almost the Theoretical Strength of Perfect Crystals," Soviet Physics Uspekhi, vol. 67 (2), no. 2, pp. 282-304, Mar.-Apr. 1959.

1958: 0 books, 0 theses, and 7 papers on tin whiskers

Brenner, S. S., "Growth and Properties of "Whiskers"," Science, vol. 128 no. 3324, pp. 569-575, Sept. 12, 1958.

Brenner, S. S., "Properties of Whiskers," Growth and Perfection of Crystals, Cooperstown, NY, Aug. 27-29, 1958, pp. 157-190. (Edited by Doremus, R. H., Roberts, B. W., and Turnbull, David.)

Ellis, W. C., Gibbons, D. F., and Treuting, R. G., "Growth of Metal Whiskers from the Solid," Growth and Perfection of Crystals, Cooperstown, NY, Aug. 27-29, 1958, pp. 102-120. (Edited by Doremus, R. H., Roberts, B. W., and Turnbull, David.)

Nabarro, F. R., N., and Jackson, P. J., "Growth of Crystal Whiskers," Growth and Perfection of Crystals, Cooperstown, NY, Aug. 27-29, 1958, pp. 13-101. (Edited by Doremus, R. H., Roberts, B. W., and Turnbull, David.)

Webb, W. W., "Dislocation Structure of Whiskers," Growth and Perfection of Crystals , Cooperstown, NY, Aug. 27-29, 1958, pp. 230-238. (Edited by Doremus, R. H., Roberts, B. W., and Turnbull, David.)

Smith, H. G., and Rundle, R. E., "X-Ray Investigation of Perfection in Tin Whiskers," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 29 no. 4, pp. 679-683, Apr. 1958.

Franks, J., "Growth of Whiskers in the Solid Phase," Acta Metallurgica, vol. 6 no. 2, pp. 103-109, Feb. 1958.

1957: 0 books, 0 theses, and 4 papers on tin whiskers

Treuting, R. G., and Arnold, S. M., "Orientation Habits of Metal Whiskers," Acta Metallurgica, vol. 5 no. 10, pp. 598, Oct. 1957.

Bradley, D. E., Franks, J., and Rush, P. E., "Electron Microscopy of Tin Whiskers using Carbon Replicas," Proc. Phys. Soc. B, vol. 70 no. 9, pp. 889-892, Sept. 1, 1957.

Baker, G. S. "Angular Bends in Whiskers," Acta Metallurgica, vol. 5 no. 7, pp. 353-357, July 1957.

Roberts, E. C., and Lawrence, S. C., "Whisker-on-whisker Growth," Acta Metallurgica, vol. 5 no. 6, pp. 335, June 1957.

1956: 0 books, 0 theses, and 9 papers on tin whiskers

Arnold, S. M., and Koonce, S. Eloise, "Filamentary Growths on Metals at Elevated Temperatures," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 27 no. 8, pp. 964, 1956.

Brenner, S. S., "Tensile Strength of Whiskers," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 27 no. 12, pp. 1484-1491, Dec. 1, 1956.

Hirsch, Peter B., "X-ray Experiments on Tin Whiskers," Dislocations and Mechanical Properties of Crystals, Lake Placid, Sept. 6-8, 1956, pp. 545-547.

Newkirk, Arthur E., "Hardness of Substances in the Ideal State," Science, New Series, vol. 124 no. 3213, pp. 172-173, July 1956.

"Metal Whiskers," Science, New Series, vol. 123 no. 3209, pp. 1165, June 29, 1956.

Arnold, S. M., "The Growth and Properties of Metal Whiskers," Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Convention of the American Electroplaters Society, Washington, June 17-21, 1956, pp. 26-31.

Brenner, S. S, and Sears, G. W, "Mechanism of Whisker Growth - III Nature of Growth Sites," Acta Metallurgica, vol. 4 no. 3, pp. 268-270, May 1956.

Franks, J., "Metal Whiskers," Nature, vol. 177 no. 4517, pp. 984, May 26, 1956.

Thomas, E. E., "Tin Whisker Studies, Observation of Some Hollow Whiskers and Some Sharply Irregular External Forms," Acta Metallurgica, vol. 4 no. 1, pp. 94, Jan. 1956.

1955: 0 books, 0 theses, and 4 papers on tin whiskers

Levy, Paul W., and Kammerer, Otto F., ""Spiral Polygon" Tin Whiskers," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 26 no. 9, pp. 1182-1183, Sept. 1955.

Hasiguti, R. R., "A Tentative Explanation of the Accelerated Growth of Tin Whiskers," Acta Metallurgica, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 200-201, Mar. 1955.

Nicholas, J. F., "The Mechanisms of Self-diffusion in Tin," Acta Metallurgica, vol. 3 no. 2, pp. 178-181, Mar. 1955.

Lutes, O. S., and Maxwell, E., "Superconducting Transitions in Tin Whiskers," Physical Review, vol. 97 no. 6, pp. 1718-1720, Mar. 15, 1955.

1954: 0 books, 0 theses, and 3 papers on tin whiskers

Arnold, S. M., "A hidden cause of failure in electronic equipment: Metal Whiskers," Electrical Manufacturing, vol. xx no. x, pp. 110-114, Nov. 1954.

Fisher, R. M., Darken, L. S., and Carroll, K. G., "Accelerated Growth of Tin Whiskers," Acta Metallurgica, vol. 2 no. 3, pp. 368-369,371-373, May 1954.

Koonce, S. Eloise, and Arnold, S. M., "Metal Whiskers," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 25 no. 1, pp. 134-135, Jan. 1954.

1953: 0 books, 0 theses, and 3 papers on tin whiskers

Frank, F. C., "On Tin Whiskers," The Philosophical Magazine, vol. 44 Seventh Series no. 355, pp. 854-860, Aug. 1953.

Eshelby, J. D., "A Tentative Theory of Metallic Whisker Growth," Physical Review, vol. 91 no. 3, pp. 755-776, Aug. 1, 1953.

Koonce, S. Eloise, and Arnold, S. M., "Growth of Metal Whiskers," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 24 no. 3, pp. 365-366, Mar. 1953.

1952: 0 books, 0 theses, and 1 paper on tin whiskers

Herring, Conyers, and Galt, J. K., "Elastic and Plastic Properties of Very Small Metal Specimens," Physical Review, vol. 85 no. 6, pp. 1060-1061, Mar. 15, 1952.

1951: 0 books, 0 theses, and 2 papers on tin whiskers

Dienes, G. J., "On the Volume Diffusion of Metals," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 22 no. 6, pp. 848-849, 1951.

Compton, K. G., Mendizza, A., and Arnold, S. M., "Filamentary Growths on Metal Surfaces - "Whiskers"," Corrosion , vol. 7 no. 10, pp. 327-334, Oct. 1951.

1948-1950: 0 books, 0 theses, and 0 papers on tin whiskers

1947: 0 books, 0 theses, and 1 paper on tin whiskers

Hunsicker, H. Y., and Kempf, L. W., "Aluminum Alloys for Bearings," SAE Quarterly Transactions, vol. 1 no. 1, pp. 6-26, Jan. 1947.

1889-1946: 0 books, 0 theses, and 0 papers on tin whiskers

1888: 0 books, 0 theses, and 1 paper on tin whiskers

Preece, W. H., "On the Heating Effects of Electric Currents. No. III," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. 44, pp. 109-111, Apr. 19, 1888.

1887: 0 books, 0 theses, and 1 paper on tin whiskers

Preece, William Henry, "On the Heating Effects of Electric Currents. No. II," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. 43, pp. 280-295, Dec. 22, 1887.

1885-1886: 0 books, 0 theses, and 0 papers on tin whiskers

1884: 0 books, 0 theses, and 1 paper on tin whiskers

Preece, William Henry, "On the Heating Effects of Electric Currents," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. 36, pp. 464-471, Apr. 3, 1884.

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Last revised April 16, 2017