Bibliography for Tin Whiskers, Zinc Whiskers, Cadmium Whiskers, Indium Whiskers, and Other Conductive Metal and Semiconductor Whiskers

This web site is being maintained by John R. Barnes, who was the President and Chief Engineer of dBi Corporation from 2002 to September 30, 2013, when we closed because ObamaCrap made it too expensive for us to remain in business.

John R. Barnes KS4GL, PE, NCE, NCT, ESDC Eng, ESDC Tech, PSE, Master EMC Design Engineer, SM IEEE
February 5, 2021
jrbarnes@iglou.com

This bibliography now has references to 4,000 documents that I have collected on conductive metal and semiconductor whiskers since 2004, including: with about 668 links to documents that as of September 2020 can be downloaded from the Internet for free.

Tin whiskers and zinc whiskers are major hazards to lead-free electronics, because they can:

One of the best-known failures due to tin whiskers was the loss of the Galaxy IV satellite in orbit in 1998, shutting down close to 90% of the pagers across the US for several days. Several other HS-601 satellites also died in orbit for the same reason-- tin whiskers growing inside a power relay-- costing their owners (or their insurance companies) hundreds of millions of dollars in losses.

I first learned about tin whiskers and tin pest in 2005, early in my study of lead-free electronics, which has since grown to over 26,125 documents. In 2008 I joined the Tin Whisker Group, which holds a weekly teleconference on tin-whisker-related subjects, and have been an active participant ever since. There I learned about a number of physical and electrical properties of tin whiskers that are very different from those of bulk tin-- and we still don't understand why!

Several months later I ran across a Ph. D. thesis that mentioned that a number of metals besides tin (Sn), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and indium (In) can be made to grow whiskers (or similarly-sized/ shaped structures) under certain conditions. Discussing this thesis at the next Tin Whisker Group teleconference, we came up with a number of factors that we thought might contribute to the unique properties of tin whiskers:

I was already making 4 to 5 trips per month to university libraries, and checking some 150 journals/ magazines and the proceedings of about 150 symposiums/ conferences each month for my other studies. So I volunteered to search the scientific and engineering literature for information on tin, zinc, and other conductive materials that can grow whiskers or be formed into whisker-like structures.

Overall, the documents referenced in this bibliography cover:

produced by:

More specifically, the materials and their forms that have been studied by researchers include:


Books on Conductive Metal and Semiconductor Whiskers (revised 9/28/2020)

The Lead Free Electronics Manhattan Project - Phase II. The Benchmarking and Best Practices Center of Excellence, May 31, 2010. pp. 131-132,Appendix C.

Buschow, K. H. J., Cahn, Robert, Flemings, Merton C., Ilschner, Bernhard, Kramer, Edward J., Mahajan, Subhash, and Veyssiere, Patrick, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Volume 10. (Katz, J. D., "Whiskers," pp. 9570-9574.) Pergamon, 2001. ISBN 0080431526. $7,295.00 list price.

Dunn, Barrie D., Materials and Processes for Spacecraft and High Reliability Applications . Chichester, United Kingdom: Springer, 2016. ISBN 978-3-319-79474-7. $154.26 list price.

Fukuda, Mitsuo, Reliability and Degradation of Semiconductor Lasers and LEDs. Boston: Artech House, 1991. ISBN 0890064652.

Gilman, J. J., The Art and Science of Growing Crystals. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1963.

Grossmann, Gunter, and Zardini, Christian, The ELFNET Book on Failure Mechanisms, Testing Methods, and Quality Issues of Lead-Free Solder Interconnects. New York: Springer, 2011. ISBN 978-0-85729-235-3. $129.00 list price.

Henshall, Greg, Bath, Jasbir, and Handwerker, Carol A., Lead-Free Solder Process Development. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN 978-0-470-41074-5. $99.95 list price.

Hudson, John B., Surface Science: An Introduction. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998. ISBN 0471252395. pp. 304-309.

Kaldis, E., Current Topics in Material Science, Volume 1. (Givargizov, E. I., "Growth of Whiskers by the Vapor-Liquid-Solid Mechanism,", pp. 79-145.) New York: North-Holland Publishing, 1978.

Kato, Takahiko, Handwerker, Carol A., and Bath, Jasbir, Mitigating Tin Whisker Risks: Theory and Practice. Hoboken, NJ: IEEE Press, 2016. ISBN 9780470907238.

Levitt, Albert P., Whisker Technology. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1970. ISBN 471-53150-2.

Licari, James J., and Enlow, Leonard R., Hybrid Microcircuit Technology Handbook: Materials, Processes, Design, Testing and Production, 2nd Edition. Westwood, NJ: Noyes Publications, 1998. ISBN 0815514239. $180.00 list price.

Lin, Kwang-Lung, Solder Materials. London: World Scientific Publishing, 2018. ISBN 978-981-3237-60-5. $143.47 list price.

Tan, A. C., Tin and Solder Plating in the Semiconductor Industry. New York: Chapman & Hall, 1993. ISBN 0-412-48240-1.

Wright, Roger N., Wire Technology: Process Engineering and Metallurgy. Elsevier, 2011. ISBN 978-0-12-382092-1.


Ph. D. and Master's Theses on Conductive Metal and Semiconductor Whiskers (revised 10/19/2020)

Anglin, Benjamin Stewart, Investigation and Characterization of Thermoelastic Eigenstresses Near Microstructural Features and the Application to Tin Whisker Growth. Ph. D. Thesis for Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, Oct. 2012.

Barreda Esparza, Jorge Luis, Fabrication and Characterization of Heterogeneous Nanowires. Ph. D. Thesis for Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 2017.

Bhardwaj, Divya, Development of Lead Free Thermal Fuse Wires Using Ohno Continuous Casting. Master's Thesis for University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 2008.

Bhassyvasantha, Sherin, Mitigation of Tin Whiskers in Electroplated Tin Coatings by Effective Doping: The Role of Surface and Subsurface. Master's Thesis for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM, May 2018.

Bierman, Matthew John, Dislocations in One-Dimensional Semiconductor Crystals: Nanowires, Nanotubes, and Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, 2009.

Bjeletich, John George, Dekinking of Copper Whiskers. Master's Thesis for Montana School of Mines, Butte, MT, 1961.

Booth, Bruce Lee, Magnetoresistance Oscillations in Antimony Doped Gray Tin. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, June 1967.

Borra, Venkata Shesha Vamsi, Metal Whiskers: The Role of Electric Fields in the Formation Mechanism and Methods for Whisker Growth Mitigation. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, Dec. 2017.

Brenner, Sidney S., The Growth and Mechanical Properties of Metal Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, May 1957.

Buchovecky, Eric J., Numerical Simulation of Stress Generation and Whisker Growth in Sn Films. Ph. D. Thesis for Brown University, Providence, RI, May 2010.

Chakraborty, Aritra, Using Chemo-Thermo-Mechanically Coupled Crystal Plasticity Simulations to Investigate the Process of Whisker Formation in b-Sn Thin Films. Ph. D. Thesis for Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2019.

Chandler, Gary Jesse Howard, Growth of Whiskers in the Indium-Tin Alloy System and the effect of Elastic Strain on Tc in alpha Indium-Tin. Master's Thesis for Clemson University, Clemson, SC, Aug. 1972.

Chen, Wei-Hsun, Evaluation of Local Anisotropic Elasticity and Thermal Expansion on Whisker Formation Sites in beta-tin Thin Films. Ph. D. Thesis for Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, Aug. 2014.

Cheng, Jing, Tin Whiskers in Electronic Packaging: Mechanism and Modeling. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 2011.

Chin, Erica, Templated Synthesis and Characterization of Multi-segmented Nanowires for Sensor and Optical Device Applications. Master's Thesis for University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, 2009.

Clore, Nicholas G., Identification and Counting Procedure for Tin Whiskers, Hillocks, and Other Surface Defects. Master's Thesis for Purdue University, Hammond, IN, Dec. 2011.

Courey, Karim J., An Investigation of the Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics of Tin Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, May 2008.

Crandall, Erika R., Factors Governing Tin Whisker Growth. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 2012.

Dhiman, Rajat, Design and Qualification of a Robust Polyurethane Based Conformal Coating Process for SODIMMs. Master's Thesis for State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 2018.

Diaz Gonzalez, Alfredo J., Pb-Free Electronics: From Nanotechnology to Combinatorial Materials Science. Master's Thesis for University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, 2013.

Dimitrovska, Aleksandra, Mitigation Strategies of Tin(Sn) Whisker Growth, Ph. D. Thesis for Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, December 19, 2009.

Doerk, Gregory Stephen, Synthesis, Characterization, and Integration of Silicon Nanowires for Nanosystems Technology. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, Fall 2010.

Dong, Fei, Polyurethane-Based Conformal Coatings for Tin Whisker Mitigation. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 2018.

Dudek, Martha A., Microstructure, Mechanical and Oxidation Behavior of RE-containing Pb-free Solders. Ph. D. Thesis for Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, May 2009.

Fang, Tong, Tin Whisker Risk Assessment Studies. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2005.

Fukuda, Yuki, Experimental Investigations of Whisker Formation on Tin Platings . Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2005.

Gao, Fan, Lead-Free Nano-solders on Metallic Nanowires: Synthesis, Characterization, and Thermal Reflow Properties. Master's Thesis for University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, April 21, 2009.

Gullapalli, Vikranth, Study of Metal Whiskers Growth and Mitigation Technique using Additive Manufacturing. Master's Thesis for University of North Texas, Denton, TX, Aug. 2015.

Han, Jung Kyu, Effect of Thermo-Electromigration on Copper Dissolution and Intermetallic Compound Formation in Flip-Chip Pb-free Solder Joints. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Han, Sungwon, Assessment of an Electrical Shorting and Metal Vapor Arcing Potential of Tin Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2012.

Haspel, Dan, Developing a Dual-Layer System for the Mitigation of Tin Whiskers . Ph. D. Thesis for LOUGHBOROUGH University, Loughborough, United Kingdom, 2018.

Horvath, Barbara, Examination of Tin Whisker Growth in Electronic Assemblies. Ph. D. Thesis for Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary, 2012.

Hughes, William L., Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanostructures for Piezoelectric Applications. Ph. D. Thesis for Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 2006.

Jafreen, Rifat, A Cost Model for Assessing the Transition to Lead-Free Electronics . Master's Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2008.

Janiuk, Szymon, Tin Whisker Growth and Mitigation with a Nanocrysytalline Nickel Coating . Master's Thesis for University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2015.

Kao, Hui-Ju, Effect of Cu additives on Sn whisker formation and interfacial reaction of Sn(Cu) finishes. Master's Thesis for National Central University, Jhong-Li, Taiwan, May 23, 2005.

Killefer, Morgan, Whisker Growth Induced by Gamma Radiation on Glass Coated with Sn Thin Films. Master's Thesis for University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, Aug. 2017.

Kohnke, Elton Everett, Electrical Conductivity, Magnetoresistance, and Hall Effect in Gray Tin Filaments. Ph. D. Thesis for Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, July 1955.

Koppes, John Patrick, Effect of Crystallographic Orientation on Hillock Formation in Thermally Cycled Large Grain Tin Films. Ph. D. Thesis for Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, Aug. 2012.

Kosiba, Eva, Characterization of Low Melting Temperature, Low-Ag, Bi-Containing, Pb-Free Solder Alloys. Master's Thesis for University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 2016.

Lee, Hoyong, Avionics Reliability Assurance Guidelines for High Altitude Applications . Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 2012.

Lee, Taekyeong, Electromigration and Solid State Aging of Flip Chip Solder Joints and Analysis of Sn Whisker on Lead-frame. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2001.

Maganty, Suraj, Enhanced Conformal Coatings for Tin Whisker Mitigation. Ph. D. Thesis for State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 2017.

Mahan, Kenneth Howard, Advanced Adhesion Strength Testing Methods of Thin Film Multilayers in Electronic Packaging Systems. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2016.

Mathai, Elizabeth, Optical Studies of Crystal Surfaces -Tellurium and Zinc-Antimony. Ph. D. Thesis for Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, India, May 1971.

Niraula, Dipesh, Physics and applications of conductive filaments in electronic structures: from metal whiskers to solid state memory. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Toledo, Toldeo, OH, May 2019.

Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, Evaluation of Environmental Tests for Tin Whisker Assessment. Master's Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2009.

Pandian, Guru Prasad, Effect of Long-term Aging on Lead-free Solder (SAC405) and Surface Finish (Pure Tin). Master's Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2017.

Pedigo, Aaron E., The Influence of the Effective Physical Properties of Tin Electrodeposited Films on the Growth of Tin Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, May 2011.

Pinol, Lesly Agnes, Fundamental Studies of Tin Whiskering in Microelectronics Finishes . Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2010.

Regalado, Irene Lujan, Characterization of Thermo-Mechanical Damage in Tin and Sintered Nano-Silver Solders. Ph. D. Thesis for Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, May 2018.

Rodekohr, Chad L., Material Factors Influencing Metallic Whisker Growth. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, Dec. 19, 2008.

Rozgonyi, George A., Field Emission Microscope Studies of the Effect of Crystallographic Orientation and Surface Defects on the Chemisorption and Oxidation of Copper Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 1964.

Sabbagh, N. A. J., Tin Whisker Growth in the Communication Industry. Master's Thesis for Sir George Williams University, Montreal, Canada, Apr. 1973.

Sarobol, Pylin, Effects of Local Film Properties on the Nucleation and Growth of Tin Whiskers and Hillocks. Ph. D. Thesis for Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, May 2013.

Seastrom, Charles Collmar, Observations on the Dissolution Behavior of Iron Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 1962.

Sengupta, Shirsho, Effects of Solder-Dipping as a Termination Re-finishing Technique . Masters Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, June 2006.

Shemenski, Robert Martin, The Defect Structures and Dissolution Characteristics of Iron Filamentary Single Crystals. Ph. D. Thesis for Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 1964.

Spitzner, Matthew James, Response of tin whiskers to dynamic input: Mathematical modeling and experimental property measurement. Master's Thesis for Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 2009.

Stuttle, Christopher James, The Electrodeposition of Tin Coatings from Deep Eutectic Solvents and their Subsequent Whisker Growth. Ph. D. Thesis for Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom, Sept. 2014.

Sun, Yong, Micro/Nano-Scale Investigation on Tin Alloys and Tin Dioxide Nanowires . Ph. D. Thesis for University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 2012.

Syarbaini, Luthfia Amra, Microstructural Evolution during Stress Relaxation of Gold Thin Films . Master's Thesis for Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, Dec. 2013.

Vaddiraju, Sreeram, Chemical and Reactive Vapor Transport Methods for the Synthesis of Inorganic Nanowires and Nanowire Arrays. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, Dec. 2006.

Vallabhaneni, Venkata Sathya Sai Renuka, Environmental-Induced Damage in Tin (Sn) and Aluminum (Al) Alloys . Ph. D. Thesis for Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, May 2017.

Wang, Rainey Yu, The Morphology Study of Zinc Electrodeposits from Alkaline Zincate Solutions. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 2006.

Wang, Weiqiang, Solder Joint Reliability of Sn and SnBi Finished and Refinished Sn (SAC/SnPb) SMT Packages Under Temperature Cycling Test. Master's Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2009.

Wang, Yibo, A Numerical Model of Anisotropic Mass Transport Through Grain Boundary Networks. Master's Thesis for Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, Sept. 2011.

Wang, Ying, Microstructure Evolution and Surface Defect Formation in Tin Films . Ph. D. Thesis for Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, May 2014.

Wu, Chun-I, Fabrication and Site Specific Growth of Nanowires. Ph. D. Thesis for Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2006.

Wu, Liang, Investigation of zinc whisker growth from electrodeposits produced using commercial electroplating baths. Ph. D. Thesis for Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom, Dec. 2016


Papers, Reports, and Magazine Articles on Conductive Metal and Semiconductor Whiskers (revised 2/5/2021)

First author's last name beginning with: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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"100% Sn Plating Whisker Growth Study," AMD, Jan 10, 2003.

A Guide To Lead-Free Soldering for Assemblers & Sub-Contractors, Version 2.6, $68 from Roger Bilham Consultancy

"A new way to grow microwires," Electronics Manufacture and Test , Feb. 4, 2011.

"A practical precaution against introducing zinc whiskers," finishing.com.

"AEM, Inc."

"Approach and Return of Experience on Lead Free Introduction in Various Industrial Sectors," SERMA Technologies.

"Are Zinc Whiskers Growing in Your Computer Room?"

"Back Up Block 1 Whisker on Cu," June 6, 2003.

"Back Up Block 2 Whisker on NiFe," June 6, 2003.

"Basler Power Supplies," Westinghouse Nuclear Tech Bulletin TB-02-5, July 12, 2002.

"Best Practices External / Customer Ready Version Rev. 1.0," Sun Microsystems, Inc., July 7, 2000.

"BMPCOE Strives to Mitigate Tin Whiskers," COTS Journal, vol. xx no. xx, pp. 60-63, Sept. 2003.

"Boeing 601 (f.k.a. Hughes HS 601)."

"Cadmium whiskers on Hubble," finishing.com.

"Close Shave," Printed Circuit Design and Manufacture, vol. 20 no. 8, pp. 10, Aug. 2003.

"Coating to stop tin whisker growth?," Circuitnet, Aug. 14, 2006.

"Comments on Test Methods & Criteria for Tin Whiskers in Surface Mount Passive Devices," EIA/ECA-CB22, Nov. 2005.

"Control of Whisker Growth in Tin Alloy Coatings," ST Microelectronics Application Note AN2035, Nov. 2004.

"Electrodeposited Pb-free Solder and Whisker Prevention," Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, vol. 106 no. 2, pp. 490, Mar./Apr. 2001.

"Elimination of Lead from Electrical and Electronic Equipment - the Dilemma of Tin-Whisker Growth," Eurocomp, no. 7, pp. 3-6, Autumn 2004.

"European directives vs. Tin Whiskers & Tin Pest," finishing.com .

"Examples of tin-whiskers failures," evertiq, Oct. 11, 2007.

"Examples of Whiskergrowing in Industry Applications," 3rd Electronic Materials and Assembly Processes for Space (EMPS) Workshop, Genova, Italy, Mar. 21, 2012.

"GEIA-HB-0005-4 Guidelines for Performing Reliability Assessment for Pb Free Assemblies used in Aerospace and High-Performance Electronic Applications," Sept. 23, 2010.

"GEIA-STD-0005-2 Standard for Mitigating the Effects of Tin Whiskers in Aerospace and High Performance Electronic Systems," Rev A draft 1/5/11.

"Getting the Lead Out," Appliance Design, vol. xx no. x, pp. xx-xx, Feb. 2006.

"Glitch silences millions of pagers," Star-Bulletin, May 20, 1998.

"High-Speed, Non-Whiskering Tin for Semiconductor Packages," Products Finishing, vol. 47 no. 12, pp. 80, Sept. 1983.

"Hot-Dip Tin Process Said to Prevent Whisker Formation," Products Finishing, vol. 73 no. 7, pp. 11, Apr. 2009.

"HP says RoHS making whiskers problem worse," evertiq, Feb. 22, 2005.

"HP's Position Statement on Tin-based Plating for Lead-free Components," Apr. 7, 2003.

"Hughes Satellite Failures Continue To Plague New Owner," Electronics Weekly, Apr. 24, 2001.

"Hughes Seeks To Salvage Satellites," Television Digest with Consumer Electronics, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Sept. 11, 2000.

"Inadvertent Reactor Trip and Partial Safety Injection Due to Tin Whisker," United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC Information Notice 2005-25, Aug. 25, 2005.

"Industry Groups Continue Focus on Tin Whiskers," CPMT Society Outlook , vol. 1, pp. 3-4, 2005.

"iNEMI Recommendations on Lead-Free Finishes for Components Used in High-Reliability Products Version 4 (12-1-06)," iNEMI, Dec. 1, 2006.

"iNEMI Tin Whisker Accelerated Test Project Test Method for Evaluating Tin Whisker Growth on Plated Surfaces." International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, June 17, 2004.

"iNEMI tin whisker group publishes updated recommendations," Tin World, no. 17, pp. 11, Spring 2007.

"iNEMI Tin Whisker user group publishes updated recommendations to help reduce risk of tin whiskers," emsnow, Dec. 20, 2006.

"iNEMI Tin Whisker Workshop," Tin World, no. 18, pp. 14, Early Summer 2007.

"iNEMI Updates Tin Whiskers Findings," SMT Web Exclusive Article.

"Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations Tin Wiskers Problems, Causes, and Solutions," Food and Drug Administration, Mar. 14, 1986.

"Interim Recommendations on Lead-Free Finishes for Components Used in High- Reliability Products,", NEMI, Mar. 2004.

"IPC-1081, Conflict Minerals Due Diligence Best Practices Guideline, Final Draft for Industry Review," Bannockburn, IL: IPC, July 2012.

"ITG Subject: Tin Whiskers - Problems, Causes, and Solutions," Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Public Health Service Food and Drug Administration *ORA/ORO/DEIO/IB*, Mar. 14, 1986.

"J-STD-020B, IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020B, Moisture/Reflow Sensitivity Classification for Nonhermetic Solid State Surface Mount Devices," Arlington, VA: JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, July 2002.

"J-STD-033A, IPC/JEDEC J-STD-033A, Joint Industry Standard Handling, Packing, Shipping and Use of Moisture/Reflow Sensitive Surface Mount Devices," Arlington, VA: JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, July 2002.

"JEDEC and IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing," Tin World , no. 14, pp. 11, 2006.

"JEDEC and IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard and Mitigation Practices Guideline," CircuiTree, vol. 19 no. 5, pp. xx-xx, May 2006.

"JEDEC and IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard and Mitigation Practices Guideline," PCB007, May 4, 2006.

"JEDEC and IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard and Mitigation Practices Guideline," FPGA and Structured ASIC Journal, vol. xx no. x, pp. xx-xx, May 4, 2006.

"JEDEC and IPC release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard and Mitigation Practices Guideline," emsnow, May 5, 2006.

"JEDEC, iNEMI Update Tin Whisker and Lead-Free Surface Finish Guidelines," CircuiTree, vol. 18 no. 7, pp. xx-xx, July 2005.

"JEDEC, IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard," Circuitree, vol. 19 no. 6, pp. xx-xx, June 2006.

"JEDEC, IPC Release Tin Whisker Standards," Printed Circuit Design and Manufacture, vol. 23 no. 6, pp. 8, June 2006.

"JEDEC Releases Standard for Tin Whisker Testing and iNEMI User Group Updates Lead-Free Surface Finish Guidelines," PCB007, May 24, 2005.

"JEITA Whisker Test Method Project," IPC and SOLDERTEC Global Conference, Brussels, June 2003.

"JESD201, Environmental Acceptance Requirements for Tin Whisker Susceptibility of Tin and Tin Alloy Surface Finishes," Arlington, VA: JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, Mar. 2006.

"JESD22A121, Measuring Whisker Growth on Tin and Tin Alloy Surface Finishes," JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, May 2005.

"JESD22A121.01, Test Method for Measuring Whisker Growth on Tin and Tin Alloy Surface Finishes," JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, Oct. 2005.

"JETRO Releases the Results of its Survey of Japanese Manufacturers in Europe and Turkey," PCB007, May 26, 2006.

"JP002, Current Tin Whiskers Theory and Mitigation Practices Guideline," Arlington, VA: JEDEC Solid State Technology Association and Bannockburn, IL: IPC, Mar. 2006.

Lead-Free Defect Guide 2, SMART Group, 2010.

"Lead Free Electronics Impact on DoD Programs," DMSMS Conference 2007, Orlando, FL, Oct. 29, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

Lead Free Electronics Manhattan Project Phase 2. ACI Technologies, Feb. 10, 2010.

"Lead-Free Just Keeps Going and Going and ...," Design News, vol. 60 no. 9, pp. xx, June 27, 2005.

"Lead Free Product Testing," Trace Laboratories-East.

"Lead Free Product Testing/Tin Whisker Testing," Trace Laboratories-East.

"Lead-Free solder failure mechanisms," TWI LiveWire, issue 11, Nov./Dec. 2003.

"Lead-Free solder failure mechanisms: What are Tin Whiskers?," LiveWire, no. 11, pp. xx-xx, .Nov./Dec. 2003.

"Lead Free Tin Whiskering Study: Grayhill DIP Switches," Grayhill, May 11, 2004.

"Lead-free: Whiskers on Tin," Tyco Electronics.

"Leadfree Solder and Tin Whiskers Program Guidance (draft)," Lead Free Soldering Summit, Philadelphia, PA, July 13-14, 2005.

"Legs 1, 2 & 3: Olin 194 8lead SOIC Molded/Singulated."

"Matte Tin Plating Whisker Data," Lattice Product Bulletin PB1227H, Nov. 2010.

"MAUDE Adverse Event Report," 1996.

"MAUDE Adverse Event Report," 2008.

"Mechanism of Crystal Growth Discovered," Bell Laboratories Record , vol. 48 no. 4, pp. 142-143, Apr. 1964.

"Metal Whiskers," Science, New Series, vol. 123 no. 3209, pp. 1165, Jun. 29, 1956.

"Metal Whiskers," finishing.com.

"Metallic Whisker Sources," Worldwide Environmental Services, 2004.

"Nano Whiskers."

"Nanowire breakthrough could lead to roll-out solar panels, flexible electronics," American Ceramic Society Bulletin, vol. 92 no. 9, pp. 11, Dec. 2013.

"NASA's Suggestions for Reducing Risk of Tin Whisker Induced Failures," Products Finishing, vol. 74 no. 12, pp. 32, Sept. 2010.

"NEMI Group Releases Draft Proposal of Tin Whisker Acceptance Test Requirements," CircuiTree, vol. 17 no. 6, pp. xx-xx. June 2004.

"NEMI Issues Revised Tin Whisker Acceptance Test Requirements," NEMI, Aug. 30, 2004.

"NEMI issues revised tin whisker acceptance test requirements," PCB007, Aug. 30, 2004.

"NEMI issues revised tin whisker acceptance test requirements," emsnow, Sept. 6, 2004.

"NEMI issues revised tin whisker test requirements," TIN World , no. 7, pp. 17, 2004.

"NEMI team recommends three test conditions for evaluating tin whisker growth," PCB007, Oct. 6, 2003.

"NEMI Team Recommends Three Test Conditions for Evaluating Tin Whisker Growth," CircuiTree, vol. 16 no. 12, pp. xx-xx, Dec. 2003.

"NEMI's Tin Whisker Project reports initial test results, reviews modeling efforts at APEX 2002," PCB007, Feb. 8, 2002.

"New additive limits tin whiskers," Solid State Technology, vol. 51 no. 1, pp. 23, Jan. 2008.

"New Immersion Tin Process PRESA RMK-30: Tin Whisker Issue," Uyemura, Mar. 2007.

"New Standards on Tin Whisker Mitigation," Circuits Assembly, vol. 17 no. 4, pp. 36, Apr. 2006.

"New tin whisker standard," Tin World, no. 18, pp. 16, Early Summer 2007.

"New TWI proposed project: Tin Whiskers - reducing the risk," TWI LiveWire, issue 14, Summer 2004.

"Nickel-coated Components Solve Electrical Problem," Nickel, vol. 20 no. 2, pp. 5, Mar. 2005.

"On Trial In Brazil," Air Safety Week, vol. 21 no. 23, June 11, 2007.

"Other Environmental Requirements."

"Overcoming zinc whisker," finishing.com.

"Pb-Free Components," DfR Solutions, Mar. 3, 2010.

"Plating's Effects on Electronics Assembly," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 7, pp. 40, July 2010.

"Position Paper on Risks to High-Reliability Electronics and Associated Hardware from Pure Tin Coatings," Jul. 25, 2002.

"Potential Tin Whiskers on Printed Circuit Board Components," Westinghouse Nuclear Tech Bulletin TB-05-4, June 8, 2005.

"Power Supply Failures: The Problem with Zinc Whiskers," Apr. 5, 2005.

Problem Advisory FV5-P-06-01A

"Proposals for Further Exemptions from the Requirements of Article 4(1) of Directive 2002/95/EC for Specific Applications of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Hexavalent Chromium," Japan Business Council in Europe.

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"Qualification Procedure for Tin Whisker Formation in Lead-free Connector Terminal Finishes," Molex.

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"Resolution of Generic Safety Issues: Issue 200: Tin Whiskers (NUREG-0933, Main Report with Supplements 1-33)

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AAAA

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CCCC

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Zhang, Chen, Lyu, Ruiyang, Lv, Wei, Li, Huan, Jiang, Wei, Li, Jia, Gu, Sichen, Zhou, Guangmin, Huang, Zhijia, Zhang, Yunbo, Wu, Junqiao, Yang, Quan-Hong, and Kang, Feiyu, "A Lightweight 3D Cu Nanowire Network with Phosphidation Gradient as Current Collector for High-Density Nucleation and Stable Deposition of Lithium," Advanced Materials, vol. 31 no. 48, pp. 1904991-1-1904991-9, Nov. 28, 2019. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201904991

Zhang, Chen, and Li, Xiuling, "III-V Nanowire Transistors for Low-Power Logic Applications: A Review and Outlook," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 63 no. 1, pp. 223-234, Jan. 2016.

Zhang, Chengwei, Chen, Jianfeng, and Xu, Lianbin, "Dual-templating approach to ordered mesoporous Pt nanowires with various morphologies," Materials Letters, vol. 223, pp. 97-101, July 15, 2018.

Zhang, Hui, Yang, Deren, Ma, Xiangyang, and Que, Duanlin, "Transformation mechanism of Te particles into Te nanotubes and nanowires during solvothermal process," Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 289 no. 2, pp. 568-573, Apr. 1, 2006.

Zhang, Jinsong, and Zhang, Jianhua, "Estimation of whiskers growth on Sn coating of Cu-Leads in different accelerated tests," Advanced Materials Research, vol. 160-162, pp. 1575-1581, 2011.

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Zhang, Junxiong, Xue, Songbai, Xue, Peng, and Liu, Shuang, "Thermodynamic reaction mechanism of the intermetallic compounds of SnxNdy and GaxNdy in soldered joint of Sn-9Zn-1Ga-0.5Nd," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 26 no. 5, pp. 3064-3068, May 2015.

Zhang, L., Lu, J., Takagi, H., and Maeda, R., "Mechanical Characterization of Nanowires by Planar Vibration Sensor," 2013 8th IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems, Suzhou, China, Apr. 7-10, 2013, pp. 124-127.

Zhang, L. C., Tanaka, H., and Gupta, P., "The Deformation of Nano-Whiskers of Mono-Crystalline Copper: Shape Effect, Properties, Shear Banding and Necking," Key Engineering Materials vol. 274-276 no. xx, pp. 331-336, Oct. 2004.

Zhang, Li, and Mitani, Yuichiro, "Structural and electrical evolution of gate dielectric breakdown observed by conductive atomic force microscopy," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 88, pp. 032906-1-032906-3, 2006.

Zhang, Liang, Yang, Fan, and Zhong, Su-juan, "Effect of Nd on whiskers growth behavior of SnAgCu solders in electronic packaging," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics , vol. 27 no. 9, pp. 9584-9588, Sept. 2016.

Zhang, Liang, Sun, Lei, Han, Ji-guang, and Guo, Yong-huan, "Sizes effect of CeSn3 on the whiskers growth of SnAgCuCe solder joints in electronic packaging," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 26 no. 8, pp. 6194-6197, Aug. 2015.

Zhang, Liang, Yang, Fan, and Zhong, Su-juan, "Whisker growth on SnAgCu-xPr solders in electronic packaging," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 27 no. 6, pp. 5618-5621, June 2016.

Zhang, Meng, Peng, Weixiang, Zhang, Hongliang, Wu, Bingjie, Sun, Kun, and Fang, Liang, "The effect of PKA directions on the primary radiation damage in the alpha iron nanowires," Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 232, pp. 16-22, June 15, 2019.

Zhang, P., Liu, Y., Ding, J., Zhang, Y. M., Yan, J. L., An, B., Iijima, T., and Sun, Z. M., "Controllable growth of Ga wires from Cr2GaC-Ga and its mechanism," Physica B: Condensed Matter, vol. 475, pp. 90-98, Oct. 15, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physb.2015.07.005

Zhang, P., Shen, L. W., Ouyang, J., Zhang, Y. M., Wu, S. Q., and Sun, Z. M., "Room temperature mushrooming of gallium wires and its growth mechanism," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 619, pp. 488-497, Jan. 15, 2015.

Zhang, P., Zhang, Y. M., and Sun, Z. M., "Spontaneous Growth of Metal Whiskers on Surfaces of Solids: A Review," Journal of Materials Science and Technology, vol. 31 no. 7, pp. 675-698, 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.04.001

Zhang, Pei, Wei, Yanlong, Ou, Ming, Huang, Zhenzhu, Lin, Shudong, Tu, YuanYuan, and Hu, Jiwen, "Behind the role of bromide ions in the synthesis of ultrathin silver nanowires," Materials Letters, vol. 213, pp. 23-26, Feb. 15, 2018.

Zhang, Pei, Wyman, Ian, Hu, Jiwen, Lin, Shudong, Zhong, Zhiwei, Tu, Yuanyuan, Huang, Zhengzhu, and Wei, Yanlong, "Silver nanowires: Synthesis technologies, growth mechanism and multifunctional applications," Materials Science and Engineering B: Solid-State Materials for Advanced Technology, vol. 223, pp. 1-23, Sept. 2017.

Zhang, PeiGen, Ding, JianXiang, Liu, YuShuang, Yang, Li, Tian, WuBian, Ouyang, Jian, Zhang, YaMei, and Sun, ZhengMing, "Mechanism and mitigation of spontaneous Ga whisker growth on Cr2GaC," Science China Technological Sciences, vol. 63 no. 3, pp. 440-445, Mar. 2020.

Zhang, Peng, Bo, Chen Hong, and Yu, Hong, "Impact of Cross-Section and Size on Vibration of Silicon Nanowires," Key Engineering Materials, vol. 645-646, pp. 1004-1008, May 2015.

Zhang, Peng, Xue, Songbai, and Wang, Jianhao, "New challenges of miniaturization of electronic devices: Electromigration and thermomigration in lead-free solder joints," Materials & Design, vol. 192, pp. 108726-1-108726-17, July 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2020.108726

Zhang, S. B., "Corrigendum to "Mechanical behaviors of single crystalline and fivefold twinned Ag nanowires under compression" [Comput. Mater. Sci. 98 (2015) 320-327]," Computational Materials Science, vol. 101, pp. 321, Apr. 15, 2015.

Zhang, S. B., "Mechanical behaviors of single crystalline and fivefold twinned Ag nanowires under compression," Computational Materials Science, vol. 98, pp. 320-327, Feb. 15, 2015.

Zhang, S. B., "Microstructure- and surface orientation-dependent mechanical behaviors of Ag nanowires under bending," Computational Materials Science, vol. 95, pp. 53-62, Dec. 2014.

Zhang, Shizhong, Rong, Weibin, and Sun, Lining, "Development of a Nanomanipualtion System for Handling Nanowires," Key Engineering Materials, vol. 562-565, pp. 1092-1097, July 2013.

Zhang, Tao, and Ling, Zhiyuan, "Template-assisted fabrication of Ni nanowire arrays for high efficient oxygen evolution reaction," Electrochimica Acta, vol. 318, pp. 91-99, Sept. 20, 2019.

Zhang, Tianwei, Huang, Yuhong, Zhang, Weilin, Ma, Fei, and Xu, Kewei, "Effect of stacking sequence on crystallization in Al/a-Ge bilayer thin films," Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum Surfaces, and Films, vol. 32 no. 3, pp. 031501-1-031501-7, May/June 2014.

Zhang, Wan, Guebey, Jonas, and Toben, Michael, "A Novel Electrolyte for the High Speed Electrodeposition of Bright Pure Tin at Elevated Temperatures," Metal Finishing, vol. 109 no. 1-2, pp. 13-19, Jan.-Feb. 2011.

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Zhang, Wan, Egli, Andre, Schwager, Felix, and Brown, Neil, "Investigation of Sn-Cu Intermetallic Compounds by AFM: New Aspects of the Role of Intermetallic Compounds in Whisker Formation," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 28 no. 1, pp. 85-93, Jan. 2005.

Zhang, Wang, Han, Wei-Hua, Lv, Qi-Feng, Wang, Hao, and Yang, Fu-Hua, "Si-based Horizontal InAs Nanowire Transistors," 2016 13th IEEE International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology , Hangzhou, China, Oct. 25-28, 2016, pp. 999-1001.

Zhang, X. Y., Cai, Y., Miao, J. Y., Ng, K. Y., Chan, Y. F., Zhang, X. X., and Wang, N., "Formation and phase transformation of selenium nanowire arrays in anodic porous alumina templates," Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 276 no. 3-4, pp. 674-679, Apr. 1, 2005.

Zhang, X., Solak, H., Cerrina, F., Lai, B., Cai, Z., Ilinski, P., Legnini, D., and Rodrigues, W., "X-ray microdiffraction study of Cu interconnects," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 76 no. 3, pp. 315-317, Jan. 17, 2000.

Zhang, Xi, and Xiang, Gang, "Magnetic Properties of Iron-Based Alloy Nanowires upon Heat Treatment," Advanced Materials Research, vol. 239-242, pp. 197-201, 2011.

Zhang, Xiao, Yang, Yang, Xu, Fangfang, Li, Tie, and Wang, Yuelin, "In-situ TEM mechanical characterization of nanowire in atomic scale using MEMS device," Microsystem Technologies, vol. 24 no. 4, pp. 2045-2049, Apr. 2018.

Zhang, Xiaodan, Hansen, Niels, Godfrey, Andrew, and Huang, Xiaoxu, "Structure and strength of sub-100nm lamellar structures in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire," Materials Science and Technology, vol. 34 no. 7, pp. 794-808, May 2018.

Zhang, Xiwei, Tang, Zhenjie, Hu, Dan, Meng, Dan, and Jia, Shuanwen, "Nanoscale p-n junctions based on p-type ZnSe nanowires and their optoelectronic applications," Materials Letters, vol. 168, pp. 121-124, Apr. 1, 2016.

Zhang, Xundi, Yang, Chenlin, Sun, Menglong, Hu, Anmin, Li, Ming, Gao, Liming, Hang, Tao, and Ling, Huiqin, "Inhibition of tin whisker by electroplating ultra-thin Co-W amorphous barrier layer," Materials Characterization, vol. 162, pp. 110221-1-110221-8, Apr. 2020.

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Zhang, Y. F., Tang, Y. H., Lam, C., Wang, N., Lee, C. S., Bello, I., and Lee, S. T., "Bulk-quantity Si nanowires synthesized by SiO sublimation," Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 212 no. 1-2, pp. 115-118, 2000.

Zhang, Y. F., Tang, Y. H., Wang, N., Lee, C. S., Bello, I., and Lee, S. T., "One-dimensional growth mechanism of crystalline silicon nanowires," Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 197 no. 1-2, pp. 136-140, Feb. 1, 1999.

Zhang, Y., Fan, C., Xu, C., Khaselev, O., and Abys, J. A., "Tin Whisker Growth - Substrate Effect Understanding CTE Mismatch and IMC Formation," Proceedings of the Technical Conference (CDROM) IPC/SMEMA Council APEX 2004 Conference, Anaheim, CA, Feb. 24-26, 2004, pp. S27-2-1-S27-2-20.

Zhang, Y., Fan, C., Xu, C., Khaselev, O., and Abys, J. A., "Tin Whisker Growth - Substrate Effect: Understanding CTE Mismatch and IMC Formation," CircuiTree, vol. 17 no. 6, pp. xx, June 2004.

Zhang, Yali, Um, Joseph, Zhou, Wen, Stadler, Bethanie, and Franklin, Rhonda, "Magnetic Nanowires for RF applications: Ferromagnetic Resonance and Permeability Characterization," 2019 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, Boston, MA, June 2-7, 2019, pp. 1100-1103.

Zhang, Yan, Zhang, Peigen, He, Wei, and Sun, Zhengming, "Tin whisker growth on immiscible Al-Sn alloy," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 31 no. 2, pp. 1328-1334, Jan. 2020.

Zhang, Yannan, Zhang, Yingjie, Li, Xue, Liu, Jiaming, Zhang, Mingyu, Yang, Xi, Huang, Mengyang, Xu, Mingli, Dong, Peng, and Zhou, Zhongren, "Low-Cost Fabrication of Silicon Nanowires by Molten Salt Electrolysis and Their Electrochemical Performances as Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes," JOM , vol. 72 no. 6, pp. 2245-2249, June 2020.

Zhang, Yingjiu, Zhang, Qi, Wang, Nanlin, Yan, Yunjie, Zhou, Huihua, and Zhu, Jing, "Synthesis of thin Si whiskers (nanowires) using SiCl4," Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 226 no. 2-3, pp. 185-191, June 2001.

Zhang, Yingjiu, Ago, Hiroki, Liu, Jun, Yumura, Motoo, Uchida, Kunio, Ohshima, Satoshi, Iijima, Sumio, Zhu, Jing, and Zhang, Xiaozhong, "The synthesis of In, In2O3 nanowires and In2O3 nanoparticles with shape-controlled," Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 264 no. 1-3, pp. 363-368, Mar. 15, 2004.

Zhang, Yu, Nishi, Naoya, Amano, Ken-ichi, and Sakka, Tetsuo, "One-dimensional Pt nanofibers formed by the redox reaction at the ionic liquid|water interface," Electrochimica Acta, vol. 282, pp. 886-891, Aug. 20, 2018.

Zhang, Yun, "Can Thin Sn over Ni be an Answer to Tin Whiskers?," IPC/Soldertec Global 3rd International Conference on Lead Free Electronics, Barcelona, Spain, June 7-10, 2005, pp. xx-xx.

Zhang, Yun, Xu, Chen, Fan, Chonglun, and Abys, Joseph A., "Tin Whisker Growth and Prevention," Journal of SMT, vol. 13 no. 4, pp. 1-9, Oct. 2000.

Zhang, Yun, Xu, Chen, Fan, Chonglun, Vysotskaya, Anna, and Abys, Joseph A., "Understanding Whisker Phenomenon - Part I: Growth Rates," Electroplating Chemicals and Services.

Zhang, Z. H., Wei, C. W., Han, J. J., Cao, H. J., and Li, M. Y., "Growth evolution and formation mechanism of n'-Cu6Sn5 whiskers on n-Cu6Sn5 intermetallics during room-temperature ageing," Acta Materialia, vol. 183, pp. 340-349, Jan. 15, 2020.

Zhang, Z. X., Chen, X. Y., and Xiao, F., "The Sintering Behavior of Electrically Conductive Adhesives Filled with Surface Modified Silver Nanowires," Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, vol. 25 no. 13, pp. 1465-1480, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1163/016942410X549924

Zhang, Zhi, Lu, Zhen-Yu, Chen, Ping-Ping, Lu, Wei, and Zou, Jin, "Controlling the crystal phase and structural quality of epitaxial InAs nanowires by tuning V/III ratio in molecular beam epitaxy," Acta Materialia, vol. 92, pp. 25-32, June 15, 2015.

Zhang, Zhihao, Cao, Huijun, Xiao, Yong, Cao, Yong, Li, Mingyu, and Yu, Yuxi, "Electromigration-induced growth mode transition of anodic Cu6Sn5 grains in Cu|SnAg3.0Cu0.5|Cu lap-type interconnects," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 703, pp. 1-9, May 5, 2017.

Zhang, Zhongxian, Chen, Xiangyan, Yang, Haowei, Fu, Huiying, and Xiao, Fei, "Electrically Conductive Adhesives with Sintered Silver Nanowires," International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, Beijing, China, Aug. 10-13, 2009, pp. 834-837.

Zhao, Fang, Wang, Qian, and Lee, Taekoo, "Characteristics of Tin Whisker Growth on Matte Tin Surface Finishes by Acceleration Conditions," 8th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, Shanghai, China, Aug. 14-17, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

Zhao, Heng, Liu, Qing-bin, Lan, Yuan-pei, Wang, Hua, and Yao, Da-wei, "The Application and Research Status of Tin Whisker Formation in Electric Usage," AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1839, pp. 020003-1-020003-10, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4982368

Zhao, Hu, Eggeman, Alexander S., Race, Christopher P., and Derby, Brian, "Geometrical constraints on the bending deformation of Penta-twinned silver nanowires," Acta Materialia, vol. 185, pp. 110-118, Feb. 15, 2020.

Zhao, Jie, Li, Ning, Cui, Guofeng, and Zhao, Jianwei, "Study on Immersion Tin Process by Electrochemical Methods and Molecular Orbital Theory," Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 153 no. 12, pp. C848-C853, 2006.

Zhao, Jie-Hao, Su, Peng, Ding, Min, Chopin, Sheila, and Ho, Paul S., "Microstructure-Based Stress Modeling of Tin Whisker Growth," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 29 no. 4, pp. 265-273, Oct. 2006.

Zhao, Jie-Hua, Su, Peng, Ding, Min, Chopin, Sheila, and Ho, Paul S., "Microstructure-Based Stress Modeling of Tin Whisker Growth," 2005 Proceedings 55th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, Orlando, FL, May 31-June 3, 2005, pp. 137-144.

Zhao, L., Chakraborty, P., Tonks, M. R., and Szlufarska, I., "On the plastic driving force of grain boundary migration: A fully coupled phase field and crystal plasticity model," Computational Materials Science, vol. 128, pp. 320-330, Feb. 15, 2017.

Zhao, M., and Jiang, Q., "Size effect on thermal properties in low-dimensional materials," Key Engineering Materials, vol. 444, pp. 189-218, July 2010.

Zhao, Mengke, Hao, Hu, Xu, Guangchen, Sun, Jia, Shi, Yaowu, and Guo, Fu, "Fundamental Studies on Whisker Growth in Sn-based Solders," International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, Beijing, China, Aug. 10-13, 2009, pp. 585-588.

Zhao, Tian-Zhang, Song, Hong-Wu, and Zhang, Shi-Hong, "Non-monotonic radial distribution of tensile yielding strength in cold-drawn pearlitic wire," Materials Science and Technology, vol. 34 no. 1, pp. 35-41, Jan. 2018.

Zhao, Wen-Bo, Zhu, Jun-Jie, and Chen, Hong-Yuan, "Photochemical synthesis of Au and Ag nanowires on a porous aluminum oxide template," Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 258 no. 1-2, pp. 176-180, Oct. 2003.

Zhao, Yonggang, Tan, Yuanbiao, Ji, Xuanming, He, Yue, Liang, Yu, and Xiang, Song, "Effect of Microstructure and Microtexture on the Mechanical Properties of Small-Strain Cold-Drawn Pearlite Steel Wires," JOM, vol. 71 no. 11, pp. 4041-4049, Nov. 2019.

Zheng, H. M., Yuan, Z. S., and Wang, Y. J., "Research Survey on Synthesis Methods of Silicon Nanowires," Advanced Materials Research, vol. 233-235, pp. 2098-2104, 2011.

Zheng, Kun, Shao, Ruiwen, Deng, Qingsong, Zhang, Yuefei, Li, Yujie, Han, Xiaodong, Zhang, Ze, and Zou, Jin, "Observation of enhanced carrier transport properties of Si <100>-oriented whiskers under uniaxial strains," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 104, pp. 013111-1-013111-5, 2014.

Zheng, Yun, Rivas, Cristian, Lake, Roger, Alam, Khairul, Boykin, Timothy B., and Klimeck, Gerhard, "Electronic Properties of Silicon Nanowires," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 52 no. 6, pp. 1097-1103, June 2005.

Zheng, Zhuoqun, Li, Eric, Ding, Nan, and Xu, Xu, "Beat phenomenon in metal nanowires: A molecular dynamics study," Computational Materials Science, vol. 138, pp. 117-127, Oct. 2017.

Zhou, Fang, Zhao, Yujing, Zhou, Weichang, and Tang, Dongsheng, "Temperature dependent Raman of BiTe nanotubes," AIP Advances, vol. 8 no. 12, pp. 125330-1-125330-9, Dec. 2018.

Zhou, Guangjun, Lu, Mengkai, Yang, Zhongsen, Zhang, Haiping, Zhou, Yuanyuan, Wang, Shumei, Wang, Shufen, and Zhang, Aiyu, "Surfactant-assisted synthesis and characterization of silver nanorods and nanowires by an aqueous solution approach," Journal of Crystal Growth , vol. 289 no. 1, pp. 255-259, Mar. 15, 2006.

Zhou, Guangwen, Zhang, Ze, and Yu, Dapeng, "Growth morphology and micro-structural aspects of Si nanowires synthesized by laser ablation," Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 197 no. 1-2, pp. 129-135, Feb. 1, 1999.

Zhou, Ke-Ya, Jee, Sang-Won, Guo, Zhong-Yi, Xiao, Yanjun, Moiz, S. A., Liu, Shu-tian, and Lee, Jung-Ho, "Plasmonics Induced Absorption Enhancement in Silicon Nanowires Coated with Metallic Nanoparticles," 2011 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Seattle, WA, June 19-24, 2011, pp. 2977-2981.

Zhou, Xiaoming, Gao, Peng, Sun, Shuchao, Bao, Di, Wang, Ying, Li, Xiaobo, Wu, Tingting, Chen, Yujin, and Yang, Piaoping, "Amorphous, Crystalline and Crystalline/Amorphous Selenium Nanowires and Their Different (De)Lithiation Mechanisms," Chemistry of Materials, vol. 27 no. 19, pp. 6730-6736, Oct. 13, 2015.

Zhou, Yihan, "Preparation and Antibacterial Properties of Silver Nanowires," Materials Science Forum, vol. 944, pp. 686-691, Jan. 2019.

Zhou, Z. F., Zhou, Y. C., Pan, Y., and Xu, C. F., "Melting of Ni nanowires with and without oxide capping," Acta Materialia, vol. 58 no. 8, pp. 3059-3067, May 2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2010.01.040

Zhu, Gang, and Chen, Dapeng, "Solvothermal fabrication of uniform silver nanowires," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 23 no. 11, pp. 2035-2041, Nov. 2012.

Zhu, H. W., Li, P. G., Lei, M., Li, L. H., Wang, S. L., and Tang, W. H., "Sublimation sandwich route to ultralong zinc-blende ZnSe nanowires and the cathodoluminescence properties of individual nanowires," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 509 no. 7, pp. 3306-3309, Feb. 17, 2011.

Zhu, Hui-Ling, Lun, Ning, Zhang, Zheng, Liu, Rui, Meng, Xiang-Lin, Zhang, Bo, Han, Fu-Dong, Bai, Yu-Jun, Bi, Jian-Qiang, and Fan, Run-Hua, "A catalyst-free method to silicon nanowires at relative low temperature," Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 312 no. 24, pp. 3579-3582, Dec. 1, 2010.

Zhu, Wenpeng, Wang, Hongtao, and Yang, Wei, "Orientation- and microstructure-dependent deformation in metal nanowires under bending," Acta Materialia, vol. 60 no. 20, pp. 7112-7122, Dec. 2012.

Zhu, Yaxin, Li, Zhenhuan, and Huang, Minsheng, "Coupled effect of sample size and grain size in polycrystalline Al nanowires," Scripta Materialia, vol. 68 no. 9, pp. 663-666, May 2013.

Zhu, Yong, "In Situ Nanomechanical Testing of Crystalline Nanowires in Electron Microscopes," JOM, vol. 68 no. 1, pp. 84-93, Jan. 2016.

Zhuge, Jing, Tian, Yu, Wang, Runsheng, Huang, Ru, Wang, Yiqun, Chen, Baoqin, Liu, Jia, Zhang, Xing, and Wang, Yangyuan, "High-Performance Si Nanowire Transistors on Fully Si Bulk Substrate From Top-Down Approach: Simulation and Fabrication," IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, vol. 9 no. 1, pp. 114-122, Jan. 2010.

Zhukov, A., Blanco, J. M., Ipatov, M., Talaat, A., and Zhukova, V., "Engineering of domain wall dynamics in amorphous microwires by annealing," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 707, pp. 35-40, June 15, 2017.

Zhukov, A., Talaat, A., Churyukanova, M., Kaloshkin, S., Semenkova, V., Ipatov, M., Blanco, J. M., and Zhukova, V., "Engineering of magnetic properties and GMI effect in Co-rich amorphous microwires," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 664, pp. 235-241, Apr. 15, 2016.

Zhukov, A., Churyukanova, M., Kaloshkin, S., Sudarchikova, V., Gudoshnikov, S., Ipatov, M., Talaat, A., Blanco, J. M., and Zhukova, V., "Magnetostriction of Co-Fe-Based Amorphous Soft Magnetic Microwires," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 45 no. 1, pp. 226-234, Jan. 2016.

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Zhukov, Arcady P., Corte-Leon, Paula, Blanco, Juan Maria, Ipatov, Mihail, Gonzalez, Julian, and Zhukova, Valentina, "Engineering of Magnetic Properties of Fe-Rich Microwires by Stress Annealing," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 55 no. 2 part 1, pp. 2000504, Feb. 2019.

Zhukova, V., Blanco, J. M., Corte-Leon, P., Ipatov, M., Churyukanova, M., Taskaev, S., and Zhukov, A., "Grading the magnetic anisotropy and engineering the domain wall dynamics in Fe-rich microwires by stress-annealing," Acta Materialia, vol. 155, pp. 279-285, Aug. 15, 2018.

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Web pages on Conductive Metal and Semiconductor Whiskers (revised 11/9/2020)

Please note: if a web page doesn't have a date, the date that I found it is in parentheses.

Ampeg B-12-XY: Tin Whiskers!, Aug. 2, 2011.

Martin, Holly, An Introduction to Tin Whiskers (before Feb. 24, 2009)

Brusse, Jay, Death by Zinc Whiskers, Youtube, Apr, 3, 2013.

Environment Friendly Technology to Replace Cadmium Coatings

Germanium

Hybrid Plastics Achieves a Milestone with Nanoscopic Materials for Suppression of Tin Whiskers from Lead-free Solders (before Feb. 24, 2009)

Spiers, Simon, Inside an AF114 transistor with tin whiskers, Youtube, Jan. 24, 2015.

Iron

Lead Finish Material Candidates and Pros/Cons (before May 17, 2005)

Lead-Free Surface Finishes for Electronic Components: Tin Whisker Growth (before Oct. 2, 2012)

Mechanism of Tin Whisker Growth in Electronics

Brusse, Jay, Melting a TIN WHISKER Using a Volt/Ohm Meter, Youtube, May 3, 2012.

Brusse, Jay, Metal whisker growing from the header/seal area of a package enclosure for a crystal, Youtube, Oct. 16, 2017.

Brusse, Jay, Metal Whiskers-Inspection Video #5: Transistor Package, Youtube, Nov. 21, 2009.

Brusse, Jay, Metal Whiskers-Optical Inspection #1, Youtube, Nov. 21, 2009.

Brusse, Jay, Metal Whiskers-Optical Inspection #2, Youtube, Nov. 21, 2009.

Brusse, Jay, Metal Whiskers-Optical Inspection Video #4, Youtube, Nov. 21, 2009.

NASA Anecdote #1: 20 Years to Failure, June 9, 2008.

NASA Anecdote #2: Tin Whiskers on Waveguide, June 9, 2008.

NASA Anecdote #3: Field Failures Due to Tin Whiskers Breaking Loose from Matte Tin-Plated RF Enclosure Lids, June 9, 2008.

NASA Anecdote #4- Tin Whiskers on Shield of GPS Units, June 9, 2008.

NASA Anecdote #5: Field Failures Due to Tin Whiskers on Circuit Breaker Contacts, June 9, 2008.

NASA Anecdote #7: Tin Whiskers on RF Shield/Bracket, Aug. 3, 2009.

NASA Anecdote: Tin Whiskers Inside of AF114 Transistors, Aug. 3, 2009.

NASA Anecdote: Tin Whiskers on Bus Bars, Aug. 3, 2009.

NASA Anecdote: Tin Whiskers on Oscilloscope Probes (2007), Aug. 3, 2009.

NASA Basic Info/FAQ, Jan. 17, 2019.

NASA Experiment 2, June 16, 2009.

Kadesch. Jong S., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Effect of Uralane Conformal Coating on Tin Whisker Growth, Apr. 20, 2005.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Electromagnetic Relay Manufacturer Survey , Apr. 20, 2005.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment #2 Photo Gallery, Apr. 20, 2005.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 1, Apr. 20, 2005.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 3, Apr. 20, 2005.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 4, Apr. 20, 2005.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 5, Apr. 20, 2005.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 6: Simulation of Whisker Growth , (before Apr. 15, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 7: Matte Tin Plated IC Leadframe Examination, Apr. 20, 2005.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Photo of the Month, Apr. 20, 2005.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Re-emergence of an Old Problem with Potentially Catastrophic Consequences, Apr. 20, 2005.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Specification Language Related to Pure Tin , (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Summary of Specification Language for Pure Tin, (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Tin Whisker Photo, Apr. 20, 2005.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Tin Whisker Photo, Apr. 20, 2005.

NASA GOLD Whiskers, Feb. 22, 2007.

NASA GOLD WHISKERS: Introducing a New Member to the Family, Feb. 22, 2007.

NASA GSFC Experiments, (before Apr. 15, 2005)

NASA Literature References, (before Apr. 24, 2005)

NASA Metal "Dendrites" are NOT the Same as Metal "Whiskers", Feb. 22, 2007.

NASA Metal Whiskers from Sn-Ag-Cu Alloy Systems, July 14, 2008.

NASA Other Metal Whiskers, Jan. 4, 2016.

NASA Photo Gallery, (before Mar. 26, 2005)

NASA Photo of the Month Archives December 2003 Sn-Pb Whiskers, Feb. 5, 2009.

NASA Related Links, Feb. 22, 2007.

NASA SILVER WHISKER Photo Gallery, Feb. 5, 2009.

NASA Tin Whisker (and Other Metal Whisker) Homepage, Aug. 2020.

NASA Tin Whisker Anecdote: Swiss Radio & Telephone, June 9, 2008.

NASA Video Gallery.

NASA What's New, Jan. 24, 2011.

NASA Whisker Anecdotes, Jan. 17, 2019.

NASA Whisker Failures, Aug. 3, 2009.

NASA Zinc Whiskers on Raised Floor Tile Structures Photo Gallery, Feb. 22, 2007.

NASA Zinc Whiskers on Zinc-Plated Steel Bus Rail, Feb. 22, 2007.

Pb-free (Lead Free) Frequently Asked Questions (before Feb. 12, 2011)

Plating

Preliminary Guidance for Optical Inspection for Metal Whiskers

Pure Tin Plating Prohibition

Reducing tin whisker related failures in electronics, Youtube, Mar. 31, 2017.

Silver

Sn Whisker (before Nov. 14, 2015)

Solder

Soviet ILS teardown with a tin whiskers surprise, Youtube, Nov. 27, 2015.

Testing for Tin Whisker Growth (before Apr. 16, 2005)

The Trouble with Tin: Get the Lead Out!

Tin Whisker Alert 2008.

Perton, Marc, "Tin whisker" crisis threatens global electronic systems (before May 17, 2005)

Brusse, Jay, Tin Whisker Growth Kinetics, Youtube, Nov. 21, 2009.

Tin Whisker Mitigation - Adding Lead to Chip Size Components with Pure-Tin Terminals (before May 17, 2005)

Tin Whisker Summary (before Feb. 13, 2011)

Tin Whisker Testing

Tin Whiskers (before Feb. 13, 2011)

Tin Whiskers (before Feb. 2, 2005)

Tin Whiskers 2004.

Tin Whiskers 2008.

Tin Whiskers "A New Problem" (before Feb. 22, 2009)

Murray, Charles, Tin Whiskers Again Cited as Potential Problem for Toyotas, DesignNews, July 25, 2012.

Tin whiskers causes and prevention 2008.

Brusse, Jay, Tin Whiskers-Dsub Connector Shell, Youtube, Nov. 21, 2009.

Robertson, Jordan, 'Tin whiskers' imperil electronics, Yahoo! News, Oct. 8, 2007.

Spiers, Simon, Tin whiskers inside a AF117 transistor, Youtube, Jan. 6, 2014.

Brusse, Jay, Tin Whiskers Inside Electromagnetic Relay, Youtube, Nov. 21, 2009.

Brusse, Jay, Tin Whiskers on Card Guides, Youtube, Nov. 21, 2009.

Brusse, Jay, Tin Whiskers on Electromagnetic Relays, Youtube, Nov. 21, 2009.

Brusse, Jay, Tin Whiskers on Lincoln's Beard, Nov. 25, 2009.

Brusse, Jay, Tin Whiskers on Terminal Lugs, Youtube, Nov. 21, 2009.

Brusse, Jay, Tin Whiskers on Variable Air Capacitor, Youtube, Nov. 21, 2009.

Tin Whiskers (Tech Tip #2) (before Apr. 30, 2005)

"Tin Whiskers with Special Morphology"

Video showing Tin Whiskers, Youtube Oct, 5, 2015.

"What are Tin Whiskers?." (before Nov. 22, 2015)

"What Are Tin Whiskers?" (before Nov. 22, 2015)

What are Tin Whiskers? (before Apr. 24, 2005)

What Are Tin Whiskers? (before Feb. 24, 2009)

What's Inside Your PC? (before May 25, 2009)

What's so special about Cadmium Plating?

Whisker (metallurgy)

Whisker growth over a 12 minute period

Whisker growth over a 19 minute period

Whisker (metallurgy)

Whiskers in germanium transistors etc

"Will electronic equipment fail from tin-whisker shorts?," SourceESB, Feb. 9, 2005.

Zinc and Cadmium Whiskers

Zinc whisker induced failures in electronic systems

Kushner, Arthur S., "Zinc Whiskers," Products Finishing, Dec. 1, 2000.

Zinc "whiskers"

Zinc "whiskers", page 2

Brusse, Jay, Zinc Whiskers- Hot Dip Galvanized Pipe, Youtube, Nov. 21, 2009.

I would like to thank Jay Brusse, Keith Hardin, David Hillman, and Victor Karpov for contributing to this study.

COMMENTS
If you refer to one or more of these documents in written communications, please mention our web site as the source. Similarly, if you link to them from your own web page(s), please E-mail jrbarnes@iglou.com giving the universal resource locater (URL), so that we may provide a reciprocal link.

Please send critiques, corrections, and/or additions to jrbarnes@iglou.com , or by snailmail to:
John Barnes
216 Hillsboro Ave
Lexington, KY 40511-2105


dBi Corporation was a one-man test house (testing laboratory) based in Lexington, Kentucky, testing a wide variety of commercial electronic products for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), electromagnetic interference (EMI), and electrostatic discharge (ESD) under its ISO 17025 accreditation. dBi was founded in Winchester, Kentucky in 1995 by Donald R. Bush, shortly after he retired from 30 years service with IBM Lexington's/ Lexmark's EMC Lab. John R. Barnes, who'd worked with Don at IBM Lexington and Lexmark, bought dBi in 2002 after Don's death, and moved the company to Lexington, Kentucky. John closed dBi at 11:59pm EDT on September 30, 2013, because ObamaCrap had increased operating expenses to the point that we could no longer afford to remain in business.

We'd like to thank all of the clients who chose dBi to test their products from 1995 to 2013. Below is a brief summary of our accomplishments during the 18 years we were in business.

From 1995 to 2001, under Don Bush's ownership and operation, dBi:

From 2002 to 2013, under John Barnes' ownership and operation, dBi:

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Last revised February 5, 2021