DESIGNING ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT FOR ESD IMMUNITY
Annotated Bibliography

This web site is being maintained by John R. Barnes, who was the President and Chief Engineer of dBi Corporation from 2002 to September 30, 2013, when we closed because ObamaCrap made it too expensive for us to remain in business.

John R. Barnes KS4GL, PE, NCE, NCT, ESDC Eng, ESDC Tech, PSE, Master EMC Design Engineer, SM IEEE
September 2, 2017
jrbarnes@iglou.com

Please note: renumbered references on December 23, 2013.

RELATED DOCUMENTS:

BOOKS:

[1] AFSC Design Handbook 1-4 Electromagnetic Compatibility. July 15, 1987. (Design notes 5D2, 5D3, 5F6)
Keywords: Bonding, Corrosion, Galvanic Series, Gaskets, Shielding.

[2] Designing for Immunity to Pulsed EMI. Wilmington, MA: Keytek Instrument Corp., 1990.
Keywords: Antennas, Balance, Blocking, Bonding, Cables, Capacitive coupling, Capacitors, Checksums, Clamps, Common-impedance coupling, Common-mode, Conductive fillers, Conductive paints, Conductive plating, Controls, Corrosion, Crowbars, Differential mode, Disabled states, Double-sided boards, Edge-triggered logic, Enclosures/housings, Error-correcting codes (ECC), Error detection, Error recovery, ESD current, ESD damage, ESD energy, ESD risetime, ESD testing, ESD upsets, ESD voltage, Fail safe, Feedthrough capacitors, Ferrite beads/sleeves, Filters, Floating inputs, Framing, Galvanic series, Gas tubes, Gaskets, Ground grids, Ground planes, Grounding, Handshaking, Inductance, Inductive coupling, Intermittent errors, Loop area, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Multilayer boards, Noise immunity, Openings, Optoisolators, Parity, Pigtails, Redundancy, Refreshing, Response time, Sampling data, Seams, Secondary arcs, Shielding, Shunting, Slots, Spacing, Spark gaps, Tokens, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Transposing lines, Twisted pairs, Unused memory, Wait states, Watchdog timers.

[3] Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Protection Test Handbook, 2nd ed. Burlington, MA: KeyTek Instruments Corp., 1986.
Keywords: Air discharge, Bipolar devices, Cable routing, Cables, Capacitance, Capacitors, Case histories, Charge injection, CMOS devices, Contact discharge, Controls, Corona, Charge injection, Direct discharge, Electric field, Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) protection, ESD charge, ESD current, ESD damage, ESD duration, ESD energy, ESD immunity, ESD risetime, ESD simulator (human body model), ESD standards, ESD testing, ESD upsets, ESD voltage, ESD waveform, Furniture ESD, Ground planes, Ground wires, Grounding, Hand/tool model, Human body model (HBM), Humidity, Inductive coupling, Keyboards, Lead-length effects, Loop area, Magnetic field, Memory errors, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Shielding, Showering arcs, Spacing, Switches, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Triboelectric charging, Triboelectric series.

[4] Ionization and Electrostatic Charge Control in the Semiconductor Industry. Hatfield, PA: Simco.

[5] Motorola TVS/Zener Device Data, 2nd ed. Motorola, 1994. (Chapter 10, pages 11-62 to 11-80)
Keywords: Capacitance, Clamping voltage, Clamps, CMOS devices, Computer crashes, Crowbars, ESD charge, ESD damage, ESD duration, ESD immunity, ESD risetime, ESD voltage, Gas tubes, Hand/tool model, Human body model (HBM), Keyboards, Leakage current, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), MOSFET's, Optoisolators, Shock threshold, Shunting, Spark gaps, Thyristors, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Zener diodes.

[6] Pulsed EMI Handbook. Wilmington, MA: KeyTek Instrument Corp., 1991.
Keywords: Air discharge, Arcing, Cables, Charge injection, Contact discharge, Direct discharge, ESD duration, ESD risetime, ESD simulator (crossed-vane), ESD standards, ESD testing, ESD voltage, ESD waveform, Furniture ESD, Hand/tool model, Human body model (HBM), Indirect discharge.

[7] Pulsed EMI Handbook, 4th ed.. Wilmington, MA: KeyTek Instrument Corp.
Keywords: Air discharge, Arcing, Cables, Charge injection, Contact discharge, Direct discharge, ESD duration, ESD risetime, ESD simulator (crossed-vane), ESD standards, ESD testing, ESD voltage, ESD waveform, Furniture ESD, Hand/tool model, Human body model (HBM), Indirect discharge.

[8] Sony Semiconductor Quality and Reliability Handbook, Sony, Oct. 2000. (download from http://www.sony.co.jp/en/Products/SC-HP/QR/)

[9] Surge Protection Test Handbook. Burlington, MA: KeyTek Instrument Corp., 1982.
Keywords: Clamps, Crowbars, Gas tubes, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Thyristors, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's).

[10] Testing for Pulsed EMI Immunity. Wilmington, MA: Keytek Instrument Corp., 1990.
Keywords: Air discharge, Cable entry points, Contact discharge, Controls, Diagnostics, Direct discharge, ESD charge, ESD duration, ESD energy, ESD risetime, ESD simulator (crossed-vane), ESD standards, ESD testing, ESD voltage, ESD waveform, Ferrite beads/sleeves, Furniture ESD, Hand/tool model, Human body model (HBM), Indicators, Indirect discharge, Keyboards, Openings, Seams, Switches, Triboelectric charging.

[11] Transient Voltage Suppression Devices. Harris Semiconductor, 1994. (Chapters 1-7 & Application Notes, pages 1-1 to 7-17 and 11-1 to 12-63)
Keywords: Capacitance, Capacitors, Clamping voltage, Clamps, CMOS devices, Crowbars, ESD damage, ESD duration, ESD energy, ESD immunity, ESD voltage, Filters, Gas tubes, Human body model (HBM), Latch-up, Lead-length effects, Leakage current, Loop area, Machine Model (MM), Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Resistors, Response time, Spark gaps, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Zener diodes.

[12] Amerasekera, Ajith, and Duvvury, Charvaka, ESD in Silicon Integrated Circuits. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1995. (Chapters 1 & 2, pages 1-27)
Keywords: Charged device model (CDM), ESD charge, ESD current, ESD damage, ESD duration, ESD immunity, ESD simulator (charged device model), ESD simulator (human body model), ESD simulator (machine model), ESD simulator (transmission line pulse), ESD testing, ESD voltage, Failure modes, Human body model (HBM), Latch-up, Leakage current, Machine Model (MM), Scaling laws.

[13] Antinone, Robert J., et al, Electrical Overstress Protection for Electronic Devices. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications, 1986. (pages 11-16, 386-390)
Keywords: Capacitance, Charged device model (CDM), ESD current, ESD damage, ESD energy, ESD voltage, Human body model (HBM).

[14] ASM International, Metals Handbook 9th edition Volume 2 Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Pure Metals. Metals Park, OH: ASM International, 1987.

[15] ASM International, Metals Handbook 9th edition Volume 13 Corrosion. Metals Park, OH: ASM International, 1987.
Keywords: Corrosion, Galvanic series.

[16] Bakoglu, H. B., Circuits, Interconnections, and Packaging for VLSI. New York: Addison-Wesley, 1990. (Section 2.5, pages 41-53)
Keywords: ESD damage, Latch-up, Scaling laws.

[17] Barnes, John R., Electronic System Design: Interference and Noise Control Techniques . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987.
Keywords: Bonding, Corrosion, Galvanic series, Gaskets, Openings, Seams, Shielding.

[18] Besancon, Robert M., The Encyclopedia of Physics, Second Edition. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1974. Pages 249-253.

[19] Bhar, Tarak N., and McMahon, Edward J., Electrostatic Discharge Control. Rochelle Park: Hayden Book Company, NJ, 1983.

[20] Boxleitner, Warren, Electrostatic Discharge and Electronic Equipment-- A Practical Guide for Designing to Prevent ESD Problems. New York: IEEE Press, 1989.
Keywords: Air discharge, Antennas, Arcing, Bonding, Bypassing/decoupling, Cables, Capacitance, Capacitors, Charge injection, Conductive plating, Connectors, Contact discharge, Corona, Corrosion, Derating components, Direct discharge, Electric field, Enclosures/housings, ESD current, ESD duration, ESD frequency range, ESD risetime, ESD simulator (human body model), ESD testing, ESD voltage, ESD waveform, Failure modes, Fault tolerance, Ferrite beads/sleeves, Filters, Furniture ESD, Galvanic series, Gaskets, Ground planes, Grounding, Human body model (HBM), Keyboards, Lock-ups, Loop area, Magnetic field, Printed circuit boards (PCB's), Resets, Seams, Secondary arcs, Shielding, Showering arcs, Slots, Software, Spacing, Triboelectric charging.

[21] Buchanan, James E., BiCMOS/CMOS Systems Design. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991. (Section 3-4-3.5, pages 46-51)
Keywords: ESD immunity, Floating inputs, Ground planes, Grounding, Latch-up, Resistors, Zener diodes.

[22] Buchanan, James E., CMOS/TTL Digital Systems Design. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990. (section 3-2-5, pages 55-58)
Keywords: Floating inputs, Latch-up, Resistors.

[23] Buchanan, James E., Signal and Power Integrity in Digital Systems. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996. (sections 3.6 and 5.9, pages 64-68 108-112)
Keywords: ESD immunity, Floating inputs, Grounding, Latch-up, Resistors.

[24] Chomerics, EMI Shielding for Military/Aerospace Electronics, 1998. (download from http://www.chomerics.com/)
Keywords: Bonding, Cables, Conductive coatings, Corrosion, Galvanic series, Gaskets, Grounding, Tapes.

[25] Christopoulos, Christos, Principles and Techniques of Electromagnetic Compatibility. Ann Arbor, MI: CRC Press, 1995.

[26] Cobine, James Dillon, Gaseous Conductors. New York: Dover, 1958.

[27] Compliance Design, Handbook of EC EMC Compliance. Boxborough, MA: Compliance Design, 1993. (Meeting the NEW EC Immunity Requirements, pages 17-22, and Designing for Electrostatic Discharge Immunity, pages 53-58)
Keywords: Arcing, Cables, Capacitors, Charge injection, Checkpoints, Direct discharge, Electric field, Enclosures/housings, ESD current, ESD damage, ESD risetime, ESD upsets, Fault tolerance, Ferrite beads/sleeves, Filters, Furniture ESD, Grounding, Guard rings, Indirect discharge, Keyboards, Lead-length effects, Magnetic field, Openings, Redundancy, Resistors, Rounded corners, Sampling data, Seams, Shielding, Spacing, Strobing data, Unused memory, Watchdog timers.

[28] Compliance Design, Handbook of EU EMC Compliance. Boxborough, MA: Compliance Design, 1995. (Meeting the New EU Immunity Requirements, Appendix 4, Appendix 6, pages 18-23, 47-49, 52-57)
Keywords: Air discharge, Cables, Capacitors, Charge injection, Checkpoints, Conductive coatings, Conductive plating, Electric field, ESD current, ESD damage, ESD risetime, ESD standards, ESD testing, ESD upsets, ESD waveform, Failure modes, Fault tolerance, Ferrite beads/sleeves, Filters, Furniture ESD, Grounding, Guard rings, Human body model (HBM), Indirect discharge, Keyboards, Magnetic field, Openings, Redundancy, Resistors, Rounded corners, Sampling data, Seams, Shielding, Software, Spacing, Strobing data, Unused memory, Watchdog timers.

[29] Compliance Design, Handbook of EU EMC Compliance. Boxborough, MA: Compliance Design, 1996.

[30] Corp, M. Bruce, Zzaap! Taming ESD, RFI, and EMI. New York: Academic Press, 1990.
Keywords: Bypassing/decoupling, Cables, Computer crashes, Derating components, Direct discharge, ESD damage, ESD standards, ESD testing, ESD upsets, Fail safe, Ground planes, Grounding, Heatsinks, Indirect discharge, Lead-length effects, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Power distribution, Printed circuit boards (PCB's), Shielding, Spacing, Substitute parts, Triboelectric charging, Zener diodes.

[31] Dabral, Sanjay, and Maloney, Timothy J., Basic ESD and I/O Design. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998.
Keywords: Capacitors, Charged device model (CDM), ESD current, ESD damage, ESD energy, ESD frequency range, ESD immunity, ESD risetime, ESD simulator (charged device model), ESD simulator (human body model), ESD simulator (transmission line pulse), Human body model (HBM), Latch-up, Leakage current, Machine Model (MM), Scaling laws, Spark gaps.

[32] Dally, William J., Digital Systems Engineering. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998. (section 11.4, pages 548-558)
Keywords: ESD duration, ESD simulator (human body model), ESD simulator (machine model), ESD waveform, Field-induced breakdown (FIB).

[33] Diaz, Carlos H., Kang, S. M. (Steve), Duvvury, Charvaka, Modeling of Electrical Overstress in Integrated Circuits. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995.
Keywords: Bibliography, Bipolar devices, Charged device model (CDM), CMOS devices, ESD current path, ESD damage, ESD duration, ESD immunity, ESD simulator (charged device model), ESD simulator (human body model), ESD simulator (machine model), ESD testing, Failure modes, Field-induced breakdown (FIB), Human body model (HBM), Input protection, Latch-up, Leakage current, Machine Model (MM), Output protection, Power protection, Scaling laws.

[34] Eckert, Jeffrey K., Commercial EMC Standards of the United States, Volume 9. Gainesville, VA: Interference Control Technologies, 1988.
Keywords: Corrosion, Gas tubes, Gaskets, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's).

[35] Ficchi, Rocco F., Practical Design for Electromagnetic Compatibility. New York: Hayden Book Company, 1971. (section 10-4, page 173)
Keywords: Human body model (HBM), Humidity.

[36] Gabrielson, Bruce C., The Aerospace Engineer's Handbook of Lightning Protection. Gainesville, VA: Interference Control Technologies, 1988.

[37] Georgopoulos, Chris J., Fiber Optics and Optical Isolators. Gainesville, VA: Don White Consultants, 1982.

[38] Goedblood, Jasper, Electromagnetic Compatibility. New York: Prentice Hall, 1990. (sections 11.2.1.3-11.3.2, pages 306-327)
Keywords: Connectors, Corona, Direct discharge, Electric field, ESD charge, ESD damage, ESD duration, ESD energy, ESD frequency range, ESD immunity, ESD risetime, ESD simulator (other), ESD testing, ESD upsets, ESD voltage, ESD waveform, Filters, Gas tubes, Human body model (HBM), Humidity, Magnetic field, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Spacing, Spark gaps, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Triboelectric charging, Weather, Zener diodes.

[39] Greason, William D., Electrostatic Damage in Electronics: Devices and Systems. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.
Keywords: Antennas, Arcing, Bypassing/decoupling, Cables, Capacitance, Capacitors, Charged device model (CDM), Checkpoints, Clamps, Connectors, Controls, Corona, Crowbars, Electric field, Error-correcting codes (ECC), ESD charge, ESD current, ESD damage, ESD duration, ESD energy, ESD frequency range, ESD immunity, ESD risetime, ESD simulator (charged device model), ESD simulator (crossed-vane), ESD simulator (human body model), ESD standards, ESD testing, ESD upsets, ESD voltage, Failure modes, Fault tolerance, Field-induced breakdown (FIB), Floating inputs, Furniture ESD, Gas tubes, Gaskets, Grounding, Hand/tool model, Human body model (HBM), Indicators, Induced charge, Keyboards, Latch-up, Lead-length effects, Loop area, Magnetic field, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Openings, Printed circuit boards (PCB's), Redundancy, Resistors, Sampling data, Scaling laws, Seams, Secondary arcs, Shielding, Software, Spacing, Spark gaps, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Triboelectric charging, Unused memory, Watchdog timers, Zener diodes.

[40] Greason, William D., Electrostatic Discharge in Electronics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992.
Keywords: Air discharge, Arcing, Bibliography, Breakdown strength, Capacitance, Capacitive coupling, Charge injection, Charged device model (CDM), Checkpoints, CMOS devices, Conductive charging, Contact discharge, Current probes, Dipole model, Direct discharge, Electric field, Error detection, Error recovery, ESD charge, ESD current, ESD damage, ESD duration, ESD monitor, ESD risetime, ESD severity levels, ESD simulator (crossed-vane), ESD simulator (furniture ESD), ESD simulator (human body model), ESD sources, ESD standards, ESD testing, ESD upsets, ESD voltage, ESD waveform, Failure modes, Fault tolerance, Field-induced breakdown (FIB), Furniture ESD, Grounding, Hand/tool model, Human body model (HBM), Indirect discharge, Inductive coupling, Input protection, Intermittent errors, Magnetic field, Potential, Shielding, Software, Triboelectric charging, Work function.

[41] Hart, William C., and Malone, Edgar W., Lightning and Lightning Protection. Gainesville, VA: Don White Consultants, 1988.

[42] Hartal, Oren, Electromagnetic Compatibility By Design 4th ed.. West Conshohocken, PA: R&B Enterprises, 1996.
Keywords: Arcing, Bonding, Cables, Capacitors, Charge injection, Connectors, Controls, Corona, Electric field, ESD damage, ESD duration, ESD energy, ESD immunity, ESD risetime, ESD upsets, ESD voltage, Ferrite beads/sleeves, Filters, Floating inputs, Gas tubes, Grounding, Guard rings, Human body model (HBM), Humidity, Latch-up, Lead-length effects, Magnetic field, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Openings, Printed circuit boards (PCB's), Resistors, Shielding, Slots, Soft errors, Spacing, Spark gaps, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Triboelectric charging, Triboelectric series, Zener diodes.

[43] Hellstrom, Sten, ESD-- The Scourge of Electronics. New York: Springer, 1998.

[44] Hey, John C., and Kram, William P., Transient Voltage Suppression Manual, 2nd ed. General Electric, 1978. (chapters 1-8, pages 1-107)
Keywords: Clamps, Crowbars, ESD damage, Gas tubes, Lead-length effects, Leakage current, Lightning protection, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Response time, Spark gaps, Thyristors, Zener diodes.

[45] Jowett, Charles E., Electrostatics in the Electronics Environment. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1976.
Keywords: ESD damage, ESD immunity, Failure modes, Human body model (HBM), Leakage current, Resistors.

[46] Keiser, Bernhard E., Principles of Electromagnetic Compatibility. Dedham, MA: Artech House, 1979. (section 3.2, pages 46-54)
Keywords: Clamps, Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) protection, ESD damage, ESD imunity, ESD upsets, Filters, Lead-length effects, Lightning protection, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Shielding, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Zener diodes.

[47] Keiser, Bernhard, Principles of Electromagnetic Compatibility 3rd ed. Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1987. (section 3.2, pages 47-55)
Keywords: Clamps, Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) protection, ESD damage, ESD immunity, ESD upsets, Filters, Lead-length effects, Lightning protection, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Shielding, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Zener diodes.

[48] Kimmel, William D, and Gerke, Daryl D., Electromagnetic Compatibility in Medical Equipment. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press and Interpharm Press, , 1995.
Keywords: Air discharge, Analog circuits, Antennas, Bandwidth, Bonding, Bypassing/decoupling, Cable entry points, Cables, Capacitors, Checkpoints, Checksums, Clamps, Conductive coatings, Conductive plating, Connectors, Contact discharge, Controls, Corrosion, Crowbars, Direct discharge, Electric field, Enclosures/housings, ESD damage, ESD frequency range, ESD risetime, ESD standards, ESD testing, ESD upsets, ESD voltage, Failure modes, Ferrite beads/sleeves, Filters, Furniture ESD, Galvanic series, Gaskets, Ground grids, Ground planes, Grounding, Hangs, Human body model (HBM), Humidity, Indicators, Indirect discharge, Interrupts, Input/Output (I/O circuits, Lead-length effects, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) panels, Lock-ups, Loop area, Magnetic field, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Openings, Pigtails, Power supplies, Printed circuit boards (PCB's), Range checking, Redundancy, Resets, Resistors, Response time, Seams, Shielding, Software, Spark gaps, Switches, Tokens, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Triboelectric charging, Triboelectric series, Type checking, Watchdog timers, Weather, Zener diodes.

[49] Kimmel, William D. and Gerke, Daryl D., EMI Suppression Handbook: Communiques from the Trenches. Boalsburg, PA: Seven Mountains Scientific, 1998.

[50] Kodali, V. Prasad, Engineering Electromagnetic Compatibility. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 1996. (Sections 2-4, 8-3, and 9-2, pages 26-31, 159-171, and 203)
Keywords: Air discharge, Arcing, Capacitance, Case histories, Contact discharge, Corona, Direct discharge, Electric field, Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) protection, ESD current, ESD damage, ESD duration, ESD energy, ESD frequency range, ESD risetime, ESD simulator (human body model), ESD testing, ESD upsets, ESD voltage, ESD waveform, Furniture ESD, Grounding, Humidity, Human body model (HBM), Indirect discharge, Magnetic field, Triboelectric charging, Triboelectric series, Weather.

[51] Lacy, Edward A., Protecting Electronic Equipment from Electrostatic Discharge. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Tab Books, 1984. (Chapter 1, Section 5.1, pages 1-19,82-83)
Keywords: Antennas, Case histories, Direct discharge, Electric field, ESD damage, ESD immunity, ESD upsets, ESD voltage, Grounding, Humidity, Indirect discharge, Input protection, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), MOSFET's, Output protection, Printed circuit boards (PCB's), Resistors, Shielding, Shunting, Spark gaps, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Triboelectric charging, Weather, Zener diodes.

[52] Lee, P. A., and Anderson, T., Fault Tolerance-- Principles and Practices 2nd edition. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1981. (Chapters 3, 5, and 7, pages 51-69, 95-121, and 143-187)
Keywords: Audit trails, Checkpoints, Cold start, Diagnostics, Error-correcting codes (ECC), Error detection, Error logging, Error recovery, Exception handling, Fault tolerance, Input checks, Output checks, Parity, Range checking, Redundancy, Resetting, Run-time checks, Safe state, Sampling data, Software, Warm start, Watchdog timers.

[53] Lide, David R., and Frederikse, H. P. R., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 78th ed. New York: CRC Press, 1997-1998. (pages 8-20 to 8-30)
Keywords: Galvanic series.

[54] Mardiguian, Michel, Cookbook of EMI Fixes. Gainesville, VA: ICT Publishing Group, 1989.
Keywords: Aluminum tape, Bonding, Cable entry points, Cables, Capacitors, Conductive paints, Connectors, Controls, Copper tape, Current probes, Direct discharge, Enclosures/housings, ESD current, ESD immunity, ESD simulator (other), ESD testing, ESD upsets, Ferrite beads/sleeves, Feedthrough capacitors, Filters, Gaskets, Ground straps, Grounding, Humidity, Indirect discharge, Keyboards, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Openings, Seams, Sharp edges/points, Shielding, Shunting, Switches, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Weather.

[55] Mardiguian, Michel, Electromagnetic Control in Components and Devices Volume 5. Gainesville, VA: Interference Control Technologies, 1988. (Sections 3.1, 3.6, 4.4.2, 4.7, 5.3, 6.1.6, 6.4, and 7, pages 3.2-3.5, 3.39-3.40, 4.106-4.119, 4.151-4.167, 5.17-5.28, 6.17-6.20, 6.40-6.53, and 7.1-7.19)
Keywords: Charged device model (CDM), Clamps, Connectors, CMOS devices, Crowbars, Electro-explosive devices (EED's), ESD energy, ESD immunity, ESD voltage, Failure modes, Filters, Gas tubes, Human body model (HBM), Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Noise immunity, Response time, Scaling laws, Spark gaps, Switches, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Triboelectric charging, Triboelectric series, Zener diodes.

[56] Mardiguian, Michel, Electrostatic Discharge: Understand, Simulate and Fix ESD Problems . Gainesville, VA: Interference Control Technologies, 1993.
Keywords: Air discharge, Aluminum tape, Analog circuits, Antennas, Arcing, Bandwidth, Bipolar devices, Bonding, Bypassing/decoupling, Cable entry points, Cables, Capacitance, Capacitors, Case histories, Charged device model (CDM), Checksums, Clamps, CMOS devices, Conductive coatings, Conductive paints, Conductive plating, Connectors, Contact discharge, Controls, Copper tape, Corona, Corrosion, Current probes, Diagnostics, Direct discharge, Electric field, Enclosures/housings, Error logging, Error recovery, ESD charge, ESD current, ESD current path, ESD duration, ESD energy, ESD frequency range, ESD immunity, ESD risetime, ESD simulator (charged device model), ESD simulator (human body model), ESD standards, ESD testing, ESD voltage, ESD waveform, Failure modes, Fasteners, Fault tolerance, Ferrite beads/sleeves, Filters, Floating inputs, Furniture ESD, Gaskets, Ground planes, Ground straps, Ground wires, Grounding, Hand/tool model, Human body model (HBM), Humidity, Indicators, Indirect discharge, Inductance, Inductive charging, Input/Output (I/O) circuits, Intermittent errors, Latch-up, Keyboards, Latch-up, Leakage current, Loop area, Magnetic field, Memory access time, Memory errors, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Noise immunity, Openings, Optoisolators, Parity, Paschen's Law, Pigtails, Power cords, Power distribution, Power supply monitors, Printed circuit boards (PCB's), Resetting, Resistance, Resistors, Sampling data, Scaling laws, Seams, Secondary arcs, Shielding, Showering arcs, Shunting, Slots, Software, Spacing, Spark gaps, Static dissipaters, Switches, Transfer Impedance, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Triboelectric charging, Triboelectric series, Unused memory, Watchdog timers, Weather, Zener diodes.

[57] Mardiguian, Michel, EMI Troubleshooting Techniques. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.
Keywords: Aluminum tape, Blocking, Bonding, Capacitors, Clamps, Conductive paints, Connectors, Controls, Copper tape, Crowbars, Current probes, Diagnostics, Direct discharge, Error detection, Error recovery, ESD current path, ESD simulator (human body model), ESD standards, ESD testing, ESD waveform, Feedthrough capacitors, Ferrite beads/sleeves, Filters, Gas tubes, Gaskets, Ground straps, Humidity, Indicators, Indirect discharge, Keyboards, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Printed circuit boards (PCB's), Seams, Shielding, Shunting, Slots, Software, Switches, Transfer Impedance, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Weather.

[58] Mardiguian, Michel, Grounding and Bonding Volume 2. Gainesville, VA: Interference Control Technologies, 1988.
Keywords: Bonding, Cables, Conductive coatings, Connectors, Corrosion, Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) protection, ESD frequency range, Galvanic series, Gaskets, Ground planes, Ground straps, Ground wires, Grounding, Lightning protection, Shielding.

[59] Marshman, Chris, The Guide to the EMC Directive 89/336/EEC. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 1992. (section 7.2, pages 121-136)
Keywords: Air discharge, Contact discharge, Direct discharge, ESD immunity, ESD simulator (human body model), ESD standards, ESD testing, ESD upsets, ESD voltage, Failure modes, Human body model (HBM), Humidity, Indirect discharge, Performance criteria.

[60] McAteer, Owen J., Electrostatic Discharge Control. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990. (section 12.12, pages 339-340)
Keywords: Charged device model (CDM), CMOS devices, ESD damage, ESD immunity, ESD simulator (human body model), ESD standards, ESD testing, ESD upsets, ESD voltage, ESD waveform, Field-induced breakdown (FIB), Galvanic series, Hand/tool model, Human body model (HBM), Humidity, Latch-up, Machine Model (MM), Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), MOSFET's, Resistors, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Triboelectric charging, Triboelectric series.

[61] Montrose, Mark I., EMC and the Printed Circuit Board-- Design, Theory, and Layout Made Simple. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 1999. (Chapter 4 and Appendix D, pages 81-124 and 311-315)
Keywords: Direct discharge, ESD damage, ESD frequency range, ESD risetime, ESD standards, ESD upsets, Ground grids, Ground planes, Indirect discharge, Performance criteria.

[62] Montrose, Mark I., Printed Circuit Board Design Techniques for EMC Compliance. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 1996. (chapters 5 and 6, pages 117-155)
Keywords: Bandwidth, Blocking, Bonding, Bypassing/decoupling, Cables, Capacitors, Charge injection, CMOS devices, Connectors, Direct discharge, Electric field, ESD current, ESD damage, ESD frequency range, ESD immunity, ESD risetime, ESD upsets, Ferrite beads/sleeves, Filters, Ground fill, Ground planes, Ground straps, Grounding, Guard rings, Indirect discharge, Keyboards, Latch-up, Lock-ups, Loop area, Magnetic field, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Openings, Pigtails, Printed circuit boards (PCB's), Resistors, Response time, Shielding, Shunting, Slots, Spacing, Spark gaps, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Triboelectric charging, Triboelectric series.

[63] Montrose, Mark I., Printed Circuit Board Design Techniques for EMC Compliance, 2nd ed . Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2000. (Chapters 5 and 6, pages 151-191)
Keywords: Bandwidth, Blocking, Bonding, Bypassing/decoupling, Cables, Capacitors, Charge injection, CMOS devices, Connectors, Direct discharge, Electric field, ESD current, ESD damage, ESD frequency range, ESD immunity, ESD risetime, ESD upsets, Ferrite beads/sleeves, Filters, Ground fill, Ground planes, Ground straps, Grounding, Guard rings, Indirect discharge, Keyboards, Latch-up, Lock-ups, Loop area, Magnetic field, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Openings, Pigtails, Printed circuit boards (PCB's), Resistors, Response time, Shielding, Shunting, Slots, Spacing, Spark gaps, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Triboelectric charging, Triboelectric series.

[64] Morrison, Ralph and Lewis, Warren H., Grounding and Shielding in Facilities. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990. (sections 7.29-7.32, pages 204-207)
Keywords: Air discharge, Cables, Contact discharge, ESD current, ESD energy, ESD immunity, ESD risetime, ESD testing, Gaskets, Ground straps, Humidity, Openings, Triboelectric charging, Weather.

[65] Morrison, Ralph, Grounding and Shielding Techniques in Instrumentation, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977. (Section 9.11, pages 128-129)
Keywords: Ground planes, Loop area.

[66] Morrison, Ralph, Noise and Other Interfering Signals. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992.
Keywords: Bonding, Cables, Electric field, Enclosures/housings, ESD current, ESD current path, ESD energy, ESD frequency range, ESD risetime, Ground planes, Humidity, Openings, Spacing.

[67] Morrison, Ralph, Solving Interference Problems in Electronics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1995. (Chapters 9 and 12, pages 162-176 and 191-193)
Keywords: Air discharge, Bonding, Cable entry points, Cables, Case histories, Conductive fillers, Conductive paints, Conductive plating, Connectors, Contact discharge, ESD current, ESD current path, ESD damage, ESD energy, ESD frequency range, ESD immunity, ESD risetime, ESD testing, Humidity, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Pigtails, Resistors, Seams, Shielding.

[68] Ott, Henry W., Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1988.
Keywords: Blocking, Bonding, Bypassing/decoupling, Cable entry points, Cables, Capacitors, Charge injection, Checkpoints, Checksums, CMOS devices, Conductive coatings, Conductive fillers, Conductive paints, Conductive plating, Connectors, Controls, Cyclic redundancy check (CRC), Electric field, Enclosures/housings, Error-correcting codes (ECC), Error detection, Error recovery, ESD current path, ESD damage, ESD risetime, ESD simulator (human body model), ESD upsets, ESD voltage, ESD waveform, Ferrite beads/sleeves, Filters, Floating inputs, Galvanic series, Gaskets, Ground planes, Grounding, Guard rings, Hangs, Human body model (HBM), Inductive charging, Input/Output (I/O) errors, Interrupts, Keyboards, Latch-up, Lock-ups, Loop area, Magnetic field, Memory errors, Openings, Parity, Pigtails, Printed circuit boards (PCB's), Range checking, Resetting, Resistors, Sampling data, Seams, Secondary arcs, Shielding, Spacing, Software, Transfer Impedance, Triboelectric charging, Triboelectric series, Unused memory, Watchdog timers.

[69] Paul, Clayton R., Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. (Chapter 12, pages 667-689)
Keywords: Arcing, Blocking, Bonding, Cable entry points, Cables, Capacitors, Charge injection, Checksums, Clamps, Common-mode chokes, Conductive fillers, Conductive paints, Current probes, Double-sided boards, Edge-triggered logic, Electric field, Enclosures/housings, Error-correcting codes (ECC), Error detection, Error recovery, ESD charge, ESD current, ESD damage, ESD frequency range, ESD immunity, ESD risetime, ESD testing, ESD upsets, ESD voltage, ESD waveform, Ferrite beads/sleeves, Filters, Floating inputs, Furniture ESD, Gaskets, Ground grids, Ground planes, Grounding, Human body model (HBM), Humidity, Inductive charging, Keyboards, Lead-length effects, Loop area, Magnetic field, Memory errors, Multilayer boards, Openings, Optoisolators, Parity, Pigtails, Power cords, Power distribution, Printed circuit boards (PCB's), Resets, Response time, Sampling data, Seams, Secondary arcs, Shielding, Showering arcs, Shunting, Slots, Software, Spacing, Static dissipaters, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Triboelectric charging, Triboelectric series, Watchdog timers, Zener diodes.

[70] Perez, Reinaldo, Handbook of Electromagnetic Compatibility. New York: Academic Press, 1995.
Keywords: Air discharge, Antennas, Arcing, Bipolar devices, Bonding, Cables, Case histories, Charge injection, Charged device model (CDM), CMOS devices, Common-mode chokes, Conductive plating, Contact discharge, Controls, Corona, Direct discharge, Electric field, Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) protection, Enclosures/housings, ESD current, ESD damage, ESD frequency range, ESD immunity, ESD simulator (human body model), ESD standards, ESD testing, ESD voltage, ESD waveform, Ferrite beads/sleeves, Filters, Furniture ESD, Gaskets, Ground fill, Ground grids, Grounding, Human body model (HBM), Humidity, Indirect discharge, Inductive charging, Input/Output (I/O) errors, Keyboards, Latch-up, Lightning protection, Lock-ups, Loop area, Machine Model (MM), Magnetic field, Memory errors, Multilayer boards, Openings, Pigtails, Printed circuit boards (PCB's), Program flow errors, Resets, Response time, Seams, Secondary arcs, Shielding, Showering arcs, Software, Spacing, Triboelectric charging, Triboelectric series.

[71] Schaffert, R. M., Electrophotography. New York: Focal Press, 1965.
Keywords: Paschen's Law, Spark gaps.

[72] Schaffner EMC Inc., Electromagnetic Compatibility. Union, NJ, June 1985. (Chapter 3, pages 41-59)
Keywords: Arcing, Bonding, Conductive coatings, Controls, Electric field, Enclosures/housings, ESD charge, ESD current, ESD damage, ESD duration, ESD energy, ESD frequency range, ESD risetime, ESD simulator (human body model), ESD standards, ESD testing, ESD voltage, Filters, Gaskets, Hand/tool model, Humidity, Magnetic field, Memory errors, Noise-energy immunity, Noise immunity, Openings, Program flow errors, Seams, Shielding, Switches, Triboelectric charging.

[73] Smith, Douglas C., High Frequency Measurements and Noise in Electronic Circuits. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993.
Keywords: Capacitive coupling, Current probes, Electric field, ESD current, ESD damage, ESD sources, ESD risetime, ESD standards, ESD testing, ESD upsets, ESD voltage, High-frequency measurements, Inductive coupling, Lead-length effects, Magnetic field.

[74] Standler, Ronald B., Protection of Electronic Circuits from Overvoltages. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1989.

[75] Sweeney, Peter, Error Control Coding. New York: Prentice Hall, 1991.

[76] Tihanyi, Laszlo, Electromagnetic Compatibility in Power Electronics. New York: IEEE Press, 1995. (section 10.2.3, pages 262-265)
Keywords: Air discharge, Capacitance, Capacitors, Clamps, Contact discharge, Crowbars, ESD current, ESD duration, ESD risetime, ESD simulator (human body model), ESD standards, ESD testing, Feedthrough capacitors, Filters, Gas tubes, Ground grids, Ground planes, Grounding, Lead-length effects, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Multifunction capacitors (MFC's), Printed circuit boards (PCB's), Response time, Shielding, Shunting, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's).

[77] Troutman, Ronald R., Latchup in CMOS Technology: The Problem and Its Cure. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1986.
Keywords: CMOS devices, ESD damage, ESD upsets, Input protection, Latch-up, Output protection, Parasitic SCR, Response time.

[78] Tsaliocich, Anatoly, Electromagnetic Shielding Handbook for Wired and Wireless EMC Applications. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.

[79] Violette, J. L. Norman, Noise Control & Design Considerations in High Performance Electronic Circuits & Systems. Falls Church, VA: Violette Corp., 1993.
Keywords: Blocking, Bonding, Bypassing/decoupling, Capacitance, Capacitors, Clamps, Crowbars, Ferrite beads/sleeves, Ground planes, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Noise immunity, Response time, Shunting, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Zener diodes.

[80] Weston, David A., Electromagnetic Compatibility: Principles and Applications. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1991.
Keywords: Bonding, Capacitors, Conductive coatings, Conductive fabrics, Conductive fillers, Conductive paints, Connectors, Corrosion, Current probes, Discoidal capacitors, Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) protection, Enclosures/housings, ESD risetime, Feedthrough capacitors, Ferrite beads/sleeves, Gas tubes, Gaskets, Ground planes, Grounding, Lightning protection, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Noise-energy immunity, Noise immunity, Openings, Printed circuit boards (PCB's), Resistors, Response time, Seams, Shielding, Transfer Impedance, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's), Zener diodes.

[81] White, Donald R. J., A Handbook Series on Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility Volume 3: EMI Control Methods and Techniques. Germantown, MD: Don White Consultants, 1973.
Keywords: Bonding, Capacitors, Controls, Corrosion, Electro-explosive devices (EED's), Filters, Galvanic series, Gaskets, Seams, Shunting.

[82] Williams, Tim, EMC for Product Designers. Oxford, England: Newnes, 1996.
Keywords: Air discharge, Bonding, Cables, Cable entry points, Cable routing, Capacitors, Checksums, Common-mode chokes, Computer crashes, Conductive coatings, Conductive fillers, Conductive paints, Conductive plating, Connectors, Contact discharge, Controls, Data errors, Diagnostics, Direct discharge, Edge-triggered logic, Electro-explosive devices (EED's), Enclosures/housings, Error-correcting codes (ECC), Error detection, Error recovery, ESD current, ESD damage, ESD risetime, ESD simulator (human body model), ESD standards, ESD upsets, ESD testing, ESD voltage, ESD waveform, Feedthrough capacitors, Ferrite beads/sleeves, Filters, Galvanic series, Gas tubes, Gaskets, Ground planes, Ground wires, Hand/tool model, Human body model (HBM), Humidity, Indirect discharge, Inductive coupling, Intermittent errors, Interrupts, Keyboards, Lead-length effects, Level-sensitive logic, Loop area, Memory errors, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Metalized fabric, Multifunction capacitors (MFC's), Noise-energy immunity, Noise immunity, Optoisolators, Lock-ups, Magnetic field, Openings, Parity, Pigtails, Printed circuit boards (PCB's), Program flow errors, Range checking, Refreshing, Resetting, Sampling data, Seams, Shielding, Shunting, Slots, Software, Spacing, Spark gaps, Strobing data, Switches, Transfer Impedance, Triboelectric charging, Triboelectric series, Unused memory, Watchdog timers, Zener diodes.

[83] Williams, Tim, and Armstrong, Keith, EMC for Systems and Installations. Boston, MA: Newnes, 2000. (Section 10.2.2, pages 257-261)
Keywords: Air discharge, Bonding, Cable routing, Cables, Clamps, Connectors, Contact discharge, Crowbars, Electric field, ESD current, ESD duration, ESD risetime, ESD standards, ESD testing, ESD upsets, ESD waveform, Ferrite beads/sleeves, Filters, Galvanic series, Gas tubes, Gaskets, Ground straps, Ground wires, Human body model (HBM), Lightning protection, Magnetic field, Metal-oxide varistors (MOV's), Openings, Seams, Shielding, Slots, Thyristors, Transfer Impedance, Transient voltage suppressors (TVS's).

THESES:

[84] Wong, Yan Chun, Satellite Anomalies and Electrostatic Surface Discharges, Naval Postgraduate School Thesis, Sept. 1991.

REPORTS/STANDARDS:

[85] 3M, Static Control Measures: ESD Control Handbook. (download from http://www.3m.com/EHPD/esd_training/seminar/ESD_control_handbook.pdf)

[86] ANSI, Guide for Electrostatic Discharge Test Methodologies and Criteria for Electronic Equipment, American National Standard ANSI C63.16-1991 (Draft).

[87] Department of Defense, Electrostatic Discharge Control Handbook for Protection of Electrical and Electronic Parts, Assemblies and Equipment (Excluding Electrically Initiated Explosive Devices) (Metric), MIL-HDBK-263B, 31 July 1994. (download from http://www.dodssp.daps.mil/)

[88] Department of Defense, High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Protection for Ground-Based C4I Facilities Performing Critical, Time-Urgent Missions, MIL-STD-188-125, 26 June 1990. (download from http://www.dodssp.daps.mil/)

[89] Department of Defense, Military Handbook Lightning Protection, MIL-HDBK-1004/6, 30 May 1988. (download from http://www.dodssp.daps.mil/)

[90] Department of Defense, Military Specification Finishes for Ground Based Electronic Equipment , MIL-F-14072D(ER), 4 Oct. 1990. (download from http://www.dodssp.daps.mil/)

[91] Department of Defense, Military Specification Microcircuits, General Specification for MIL-M-38510J, 15 Nov. 1991. (download from http://www.dodssp.daps.mil/)

[92] Department of Defense, Military Standard Corrosion Prevention and Deterioration Control in Electronic Components and Assemblies, MIL-STD-1250A, 29 June 1992. (download from http://www.dodssp.daps.mil/)

[93] Department of Defense, Military Standard Dissimilar Metals, MIL-STD-889B, 7 July 1976.

[94] Department of Defense, Military Standard Grounding, Bonding and Shielding Design Practices, MIL-STD-1857(EL), 30 June 1976. (download from http://www.dodssp.daps.mil/)

[95] Department of Defense, Standard Practice Electrostatic Discharge Control Program for Protection of Electrica and Electronic Parts, Assemblies and Equipment (Excluding Electrically Initiated Explosive Devices) MIL-STD-1686C, Dec. 31 1992. (download from http://astimage.daps.dla.mil/docimages/0001\79\08\1686C.PD9)

[96] Department of Defense, Test Method Standard Microcircuits MIL-STD-883E, 31 Dec. 1996. (download from http://www.dodssp.daps.mil/)

[97] Department of Defense, Test Method Standard Semiconductor Devices MIL-STD-750D, 28 Feb. 1995. (download from http://www.dodssp.daps.mil/)

[98] Electronic Industries Association, "Designers Guide on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Bonding of Electronic Equipment," EMC Bulletin No. 5, Feb. 1964.

[99] Electronic Industries Association, "Designers Guide on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Cabling of Electronic Equipment," EMC Bulletin No. 8, Mar. 1965.

[100] Electronic Industries Association, "Designers Guide on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Enclosures for Electronic Equipment," EMC Bulletin No. 7, Oct. 1966.

[101] Electronic Industries Association, "Designers Guide on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Grounding of Electronic Equipment," EMC Bulletin No. 6, Dec. 1967.

[102] ESD Association, "Protection of Electrical and Electronic Parts, Assemblies, and Equipment (Excluding Electrically Initiated Explosive Devices," ANSI/ESD S20.20-1999, Aug. 4, 1999. (download from http://www.esda.org/pdf_files/s2020std.pdf)

[103] ESD Asociation, "Transient Induced Latch-Up," ESD Association Technical Report TR 09-00, Jan. 2000.

[104] European Computer Manufacturers Association, "Electrostatic Discharge Immunity Testing of Information Technology Equipment," ECMA TR/40, July 1987. (download from ftp://ftp.ecma.ch/ecma-tr/tr-040.pdf)

[105] European Computer Manufacturers Association, "Electrostatic Discharge Susceptibility," ECMA TR/23, Sept. 1984. (download from http://ecma.ch/)

[106] European Computer Manufacturers Association, "Limits and Methods of Measurement of Immunity Characteristics of Information Technology Equipment," ECMA Standard ECMA-237, June 1996.

[107] International Electrotechnical Commission, "Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Part 4: testing and measurement techniques section 2: Electrostatic discharge immunity test basic EMC publication," IEC International Standard 1000-4-2: 1995.

[108] International Electrotechnical Commission, "Electromagnetic compatibility for industrial-process measurement and control equipment, 2nd ed.," IEC International Standard 801-2, Apr. 1991.

[109] International Electrotechnical Commission, "Information technology equipment-- Immunity characteristics-- Limits and methods of measurement, 1st ed." IEC International Standard CISPR 24, Sept. 1997.

[110] IEEE, "IEEE Guide on Electrostatic Discharge (ESD): ESD Withstand Capability Evaluation Methods (for Electronic Equipment Subassemblies)", IEEE Std. C62.38-1994, Apr. 25, 1995.

[111] Ministry of Defence, "Metals and Corrosion Guide," Defence Standard 02-738, Aug. 1992. (download from http://www.dstan.mod.uk/)

[112] Wilson, Perry F., Ondrejka, Arthur R., Ma, Mark T., and Ladbury, John M., "Electromagnetic Fields Radiated From Electrostatic Discharges-- Theory and Experiment," NBS Technical Note 1314, Feb. 1988.

[113] "Design Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Avionic Corrosion," NAVMAT P 4855-2, June 1983. (download from http://web2.deskbook.osd.mil/htmlfiles/DBY_don-16-Careersalpha.asp)

PAPERS, APPLICATION NOTES, MAGAZINE ARTICLES, REPORTS, AND WEB PAGES:

First author's name beginning with: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

[114] "10/100 Ethernet Protection," Semtech Surging Ideas SI98-02, Sept. 2000. (download from http://www.semtech.com/pdf/apptvs/si98-02.pdf

[115] "A Comparison of Low Voltage Metal Oxide Varistors (MOVs) vs Transzorbs(R)," General Semiconductor Application Note 1010.

[116] "A Comparison of Zener Diodes vs Transzorbs(R) (A New Approach)," General Semiconductor Application Note 1009.

[117] "A Galvanic Series of Certain Metals and Alloys Arranged In Order of Corrosivity". (download from http://www.stusteel.com/galvseri.htm)

[118] "AC Ionizers: An Unknown Risk in the Manufacture of MR Heads," (download from http://www.ion.com/storage/tb1000.html)

[119] "ADI Reliability Handbook," 2000. (download from http://www.analog.com/world/quality/manuals/eos_esd_chapter_091400b_103.pdf)

[120] "Basic Applications for SurgX Devices," Cooper Electronic Technologies, Aug. 9, 1999. (download from http://www.cooperelectronics.com/pdf/3502.pdf)

[121] "Basics of Electrostatic Discharge Part 1-- An Introduction to ESD," Electrostatic Discharge Association, Jan. 2000. (download from http://www.esda.org/esdbasics1.htm)

[122] "Basics of Electrostatic Discharge Part Five-- Device Sensitivity and Testing," Electrostatic Discharge Association, Jan. 2000. (download from http://www.esda.org/esdbasics5.htm)

[123] "Calculating Clamping Voltage at Different Peak Pulse Currents," Semtech Surging Ideas SI97-02, Sept. 2000. (download from http://www.semtech.com/pdf/apptvs/si97-03.pdf

[124] "Calculating Transient Energy," Semtech Surging Ideas SI97-01, Sept. 2000. (download from http://www.semtech.com/pdf/apptvs/si97-02.pdf

[125] "Conductive Coatings and Adhesives," ITEM, pp. 104-197, 1977.

[126] "Corrosion". (download from http://www.gordonengland.co.uk/xcorrosion.htm

[127] "Corrosion". (download from http://www.er6.eng.ohio-state.edu/~SOBOYEJO/lecture18.html)

[128] "Corrosion". (download from http://www.cda.org.uk/megab2/elecapps/earthing/sec111.htm

[129] "Corrosion Information". (download from http://ccfast.com/ccfcorrosion.html)

[130] "corrosion potentials graph". (download from http://www.problemsolved.com/reference_library/HVAC_water/corrosion/ corrosion_potentials.htm)

[131] "Corrosion Potentials in Flowing Seawater". (download from http://corrosion-doctors.org/Aircraft/galvseri-fig.htm)

[132] "Corrosion susceptibility of metals". (download from http://myhome.shinbiro.com/~dddgr/cu10.htm)

[133] "Corrossion problems associated with stainless steel 4-1". (download from http://www.mcnallyinstitute.com/04-html/4-1.html)

[134] "Design & Development", Tektran. (download from http://www.tektran.com/page4.html)

[135] "Design Considerations for ESD Protection Using ESD Protection Diode Arrays," California Micro Devices Application Note AP-209, Oct. 1998. (download from http://www.calmicro.com/prod/data/pdf/ap-209.pdf)

[136] "Designing for Compliance: Immunity to ESD," Application Note, pp. 1-6.

[137] "Designing with Microcontrollers in Noisy Environments," ST Application Note AN435, 1998. (download from http://appnote.stts.edu/thompson/2488.Pdf)

[138] "Diagnostic Electrostatic Discharge Mapping," IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin, vol. 28 no. 10, pp. 4278-4279, Mar. 1986.

[139] "Disadvantage of On-chip Transient Protection," Semtech Surging Ideas SI97-04, Sept. 2000. (download from http://www.semtech.com/pdf/apptvs/si97-04.pdf)

[140] "Electrode Potential of Various Metals and Alloys," 2001. (download from http://www.gatordock.com/newpage1.htm)

[141] "Electrostatic Discharge", Electronic Packaging & Production, vol. 37 no. 16, pp. 31, December 1997.

[142] "Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Protection for Ethernet Transceivers," Semtech Surging Ideas SI97-01, Sept. 2000. (download from http://www.semtech.com/pdf/apptvs/si97-01.pdf

[143] "Electrostatic Discharge Immunity," source unknown, pp. 4.

[144] "Electrostatic discharge problems," Electronic Engineering (London), vol. 55 no. 684, pp. 20, Dec. 1983.

[145] "Electrostatic Discharge Protection of High Performance Capacitors," California Micro Devices Application Note AP-207. (download from http://www.calmicro.com/prod/app/ap-207.htm)

[146] "Electro-static Discharge Protection of High Performance Integrated Circuits," California Micro Devices Application Note AP-208, June 1998. (download from http://www.calmicro.com/prod/data/pdf/ap-208.pdf)

[147] "Electrostatic Discharge Sensitivity Measurement," ST Application Note 1181. (download from http://us.st.com/stonline/books/pdf/docs/6970.pdf)

[148] "EMC Design Application Note LCD Monitor & Notebook Applications Revision B," Silicon Image Application Note Sil-AN-0003-B. April 21, 1998. (download from http://www.siimage.com/documents/SiI-AN-0003-B.PDF)

[149] "EMI Filter and Line Termination for USB Upstream Ports," ST USBUFxxW6, Mar. 2000. (download from http://us.st.com/stonline/books/pdf/docs/7041.pdf)3

[150] "EMI Filter Including ESD Protection", ST EMIF01-10018W5, Sept. 1999. (download from http://us.st.com/stonline/books/pdf/docs/6761.pdf)

[151] "EOE-- An Earthshaking Success," Evaluation Engineering, vol. 23 no. 7, pp. 110-118, July 1984.

[152] "ESD Considerations for RS-232 Drivers," Dallas Semiconductor Tech Brief No. 10, May 18, 2000. (download from http://www.dalsemi.com/techbriefs/tb10.html)

[153] "ESD Protection," Semtech Surging Ideas SI96-12, Sept. 2000. (download from http://www.semtech.com/pdf/apptvs/si96-12.pdf

[154] "ESD protection for I/O ports." (download from http://209.1.238.246/1st_pages/ENGJR25.htm)

[155] "ESD Protection on the VGA Connector," California Micro Devices Application Note AP-206. (download from http://www.calmicro.com/prod/app/ap-206.htm)

[156] "ESD Testing per IEC 1000-4-2", KeyTek Application Note, Oct. 1997. (download from http://www.keytek.com/emc/pdf/app_notes/iec_61000_4_2.pdf)

[157] "ESD Threat to Semiconductor Devices," Semtech Surging Ideas SI96-11, Sept. 2000. (download from http://www.semtech.com/pdf/apptvs/si96-11.pdf

[158] "GA1088 ESD Evaluation Report," TriQuint Semiconductor Reliability Report #94-02.

[159] "Galvanic Compatibility". (download from http://corrosion-doctors.org/Aircraft/galvseri-compat.htm)

[160] "Galvanic Corrosion". (download from http://corrosion.ksc.nasa.gov/html/galcorr.htm)

[161] "Galvanic Corrosion Potential". (download from http://www.pemnet.com/design_information/galvanic.html)

[162] "Galvanic Series", 2000. (download from http://www.corrosionsource.com/handbook/galv_series.htm)

[163] "Galvanic Series: Corrosion Potentials in Flowing Seawater, (V vs SCE Half-Cell Reference Electrode). (download from http://www.corrprev.org.au/Galvanic.htm)

[164] "Galvanic Series in Seawater". (download from http://corrosion-doctors.org/Aircraft/galvseri-sea.htm)

[165] "Galvanic series in sea-water at 10C". (download from http://www.alu-info.dk/Html/alulib/modul/A00106.htm)

[166] "Galvanic Series of Metals and Alloys". (download from http://www.mcnallyinstitute.com/Charts/galvanic-series.html)

[167] "galvanic series of metals and alloys". (download from http://www.problemsolved.com/reference_library/HVAC_water/corrosion/ corrosion_galvanic_series.htm)

[168] "Galvanic Series of Metals in Sea Water". (download from http://dixdesign.com/galvanic.htm)

[169] "Guarding Against Electrostatic Damage," Allen-Bradley, May 1988. (download from http://www.ab.com/manuals/dr/8000/8000-4_5_2.pdf)

[170] "IEC 801 Requirements."

[171] "IEC Electromagnetic Compatibility Standards for Industrial Process Measurement and Control Equipment, Harris Suppression Products Application Note AN9734, Jan. 1998. (download from http://www.littlefuse.com/PDFs/AppNotes/an9734.pdf)

[172] "IEC standard on ESD," Electromagnetic News Report, vol. 13 no. 2, pp. 1-3, July 1985.

[173] "Immunity to ESD." (download from http://www.compdesigninc.com/96handbook_Appendix6.htm)

[174] "Introduction to ESD and Related Specifications," Cooper Electronic Technologies, Aug. 9, 1999. (download from http://www.cooperelectronics.com/pdf/3503.pdf)

[175] "Littlefuse "ML" Multilayer Surface Mount Surge Suppressors," Harris Suppression Products Application Note AN9108.4, July 1999. (download from http://www.littlefuse.com/PDFs/AppNotes/an9108.pdf)

[176] "Littlefuse Varistors-- Basic Properties, Terminology and Theory," Harris Suppression Products Application Note AN9767.1, July 1999. (download from http://www.littlefuse.com/PDFs/AppNotes/an9767.pdf)

[177] "LonWorks(R) TPT Twisted Pair Transceiver Module User's Guide Revision 3", 1996. (download from http://www.echelon.com/Products/technical/pdfs/manuals/tpttwisted.pdf)

[178] "Materials Selection for High Reliability Seawater Systems". (download from http://marine.copper.org/2-figure4.html)

[179] "Maxim Leads the Way in ESD Protection," Aug. 2000. (download from http://dbserv.maxim-ic.com/tarticle/view_article.cfm?article_id=89)

[180] "Minimizing EMI Effects During PCB Layout of Z8/Z8Plus Circuits," Zilog Application Note An002000-Z8X1099, 1999. (download from http://www.zilog.com/pdfs/z8otp/minimizing_emi.pdf)

[181] "New ESD Standards Expected to Fill GAp for Disk Drive Industry," 2000. (download from http://www.ce-mag.com/archive/2000/julyaugust/newsline.html).

[182] "New RS-232 ICs feature 1uS supply current, +/-15kV ESD protection, and 3V operation." (download from http://209.1.238.246/1st_pages/ENGJR16.htm)

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DDDDDD

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EEEEEE

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GGGGGG

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MMMMMM

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OOOOOO

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PPPPPP

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QQQQQQ

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[1343] Smith, Douglas C., "Cable Effects Part I: Cable Discharge Events." (download from http://emcesd.com/tt2002/tt010102.htm)

[1344] Smith, Douglas C., "Comparing "IEC 61000-4-2 Compliant" ESD Simulators," Dec. 2010.

[1345] Smith, Douglas C., "Comparison of Current Waveforms from 150 Ohm and 330 Ohm Networks in an IEC 61000-4-2 Simulator," Nov. 2010.

[1346] Smith, Douglas C., "Computer Simulation of ESD and Lightning Events," Electrical Overstress/Electrostatic Discharge Symposium Proceedings, Las Vegas, NV, Sept. 23-25, 1986, pp. 100-110.

[1347] Smith, Douglas C., "Construction of a Tool for Removing Static Charges During ESD Testing (A New Use for a Ballpoint Pen)," Nov. 2011.

[1348] Smith, Douglas C., "Controlling Variables in High Frequency Tests and Measurements - An ESD Example," Oct. 2005.

[1349] Smith, Douglas C., "Current Measurements," 1997-1999. (download from http://www.emcesd.com/talks/imeas.pdf)

[1350] Smith, Douglas C., "Current Probes, More Useful Than You Think," Conformity, vol. 5 no. 7, pp. 18-27, July 2000.

[1351] Smith, Douglas C., "Current Probes, More Useful Than You Think," 1998 IEEE EMC Symposium Record Volume 1, Denver, CO, Aug. 24-28, 1998, pp. 284-289.

[1352] Smith, Douglas C., "Destroying Electronic Components from Across the Room With ESD (Today's sensitive components are really sensitive!)," May-June 2012.

[1352d] Smith, Douglas C., "Destroying Electronic Components from Across the Room With ESD (Today's sensitive components are really sensitive!)," IN Compliance Magazine , pp. 44-47,Feb. 2013.
[1353] Smith, Douglas C., "Effect of High Voltage Pulses on Resistors - ESD and EFT," June 2009.

[1353d] Smith, Douglas C., "Effect of High Voltage Pulses on Resistors - ESD and EFT," IN Compliance Magazine, pp. xx-xx, Oct. 2012.

[1354] Smith, Douglas C., "Electrical Fast Transient Testing: Principles, Test Tips, and Unusual Uses for EFT Generators," 2000. (download from http://www.emcesd.com/talks/eft2000.pdf)

[1355] Smith, Douglas C., "Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Effects on Measurement Equipment (ESD Effects on Oscilloscopes)," Oct. 2011.

[1355d] Smith, Douglas C., "Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Effects on Measurement Equipment - ESD Effects on Oscilloscopes," IN Compliance Magazine, pp. 60-61, Nov. 2012.

[1356] Smith, Douglas C., and Wallash, Al, "Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Inside a Hard Disk Drive Due to External ESD," Electrical Overstress/Electrostatic Discharge Symposium Proceedings, Charlotte, NC, Oct. 8-10, 2002, pp. 02-32 to 02-36.

[1357] Smith, Douglas C., "Electrostatic Discharge in Medical Electronics: It's Not Just Wrist Straps Anymore," Medical Electronics Manufacturing, Fall 2000. (download from http://devicelink.com/mem/archive/00/10/008.html)

[1358] Smith, Douglas C., "ESD, A Small Change Can Have a Large Effect," Jan. 2006.

[1359] Smith, Douglas C., "ESD and EMI Effects in Printed Wiring Boards," 2000. (download from http://www.emcesd.com/talks/pwbesd.pdf)

[1360] Smith, Douglas C., and Nakauchi, Ed, "ESD Immunity in System Designs, System Field Experiences and Effects of PWB Layout," Electrical Overstress/ Electrostatic Discharge Symposium Proceedings, Anaheim, CA, Sept. 26-28, 2000, pp. 48-53. (download from http://www.emcesd.com/pdf/eos00-w.pdf)

[1361] Smith, Douglas C., and Nakauchi, Ed, "ESD Immunity in System Designs, System Field Experiences and Effects of PWB Layout," Conformity , vol. 7 no. 9, pp. 29-34, Sept. 2002.

[1362] Smith, Douglas C., "Filtering Contact Discharges - Part 2, High Pass Filtering (for troubleshooting or simulation of ESD from small objects)," Oct. 2006.

[1363] Smith, Douglas C., "Hidden Threats to Electronic Equipment," May 2001.

[1364] Smith, Douglas C., "Human Metal ESD Characteristics, Size of Metal Object (Intensity of ESD from a metal object in a human hand is not significantly affected by the size of the metal object)," July 2013.

[1365] Smith, Douglas C., "Human Metal vs. Human Body ESD (Metal in a human hand significantly increases ESD intensity)," Apr. 2013.

[1366] Smith, Douglas C., "In ESD Testing, Necessity is the Mother of Invention (powering an ESD simulator from AA batteries)," Sept. 2010.

[1367] Smith, Douglas C., "Impulsive EMI: Unusual Sources, Effects on Equipment, and Troubleshooting Techniques," 2002 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility Workshops & Tutorials, Minneapolis, MN, Aug. 19-23, 2002, pp. 413-446.

[1368] Smith, Douglas C., "Induced Voltages via Electric and Magnetic Fields - ESD Immunity," July 2004.

[1369] Smith, Douglas C., "Injection of ESD Current Into Cables Using Capacitance (a useful ESD troubleshooting tool)," Jan. 2009.

[1370] Smith, Douglas C., "Investigate System-Level ESD Problems," Test & Measurement World, vol. 19 no. 14, pp. 28-36, Nov. 1999. (download from http://www.tmworld.com/articles/11_1999_ESD.htm)

[1371] Smith, Douglas C., "Isolating Board and Chassis Grounds - A Potential Problem (An ESD Example)," Mar. 2007.

[1372] Smith, Douglas C., "Locating ESD and Other Impulsive Events," Dec. 2004.

[1373] Smith, Douglas C., "Measuring Breakdown Voltage and Charging Objects With an ESD Simulator - Part 2 (A method that works with most ESD simulators)," Sept. 2012.

[1374] Smith, Douglas C., "Measuring Breakdown Voltage With an ESD Simulator (Special simulator characteristics are needed)," July 2012.

[1375] Smith, Douglas C., "Measuring ESD Stress on a PCB (When Conventional Measurements Don't Work)," July 2011.

[1376] Smith, Douglas C., "Measuring the Effects of High Frequency Noise Currents in Equipment," Nov. 2000. (download from http://emcesd.com/tt110100.htm)

[1377] Smith, Douglas C., "Minimizing ESD Events Involving Electronic Equipment (Using Static Dissipative Materials in Equipment Design)," Oct. 2008.

[1378] Smith, Douglas C., "Misapplication of Test Standards," June 2004.

[1379] Smith, Douglas C., "Mobile Phone Response to EMI from Small Metal ESD," Sept. 2004.

[1380] Smith, Douglas C., "Overview of High Frequency Measurements for Design and Troubleshooting," 2000. (download from http://www.emcesd.com/talks/hfovervw.pdf)

[1381] Smith, Douglas C., "Printed Wiring Board Coupling to a Nearby Metal Plane Part 2: ESD Immunity," (download from http://emcesd.com/tt2002/tt050102.htm)

[1382] Smith, Douglas C., "Radiated Interference to High Frequency Signal Measurements from the Signal Source," July 2005.

[1383] Smith, Douglas C., "Routing Signals Between PWB Layers - Part 1, An ESD Example," Apr. 2006.

[1384] Smith, Douglas C., "Signal and Noise Measurement Techniques Using Magnetic Field Probes," 1999 IEEE EMC Symposium Record Volume 1, Seattle, WA, Aug. 2-6, 1999, pp. 559-563.

[1385] Smith, Douglas C., Henry, Leo G., Hogsett, Mark, and Nuebel, Joe, "Sources of Impulsive EMI in Large Server Farms," Electrical Overstress/ Electrostatic Discharge Symposium Proceedings, Charlotte, NC, Oct. 8-10, 2002, pp. 02-26 to 02-31.

[1386] Smith, Douglas C., "System Level ESD/EMI Tutorial," Anaheim, CA, Sept. 24, 2000.

[1387] Smith, Douglas C., "Techniques and Methodologies for Making System Level ESD Response Measurements for Troubleshooting or Design Verification," Electrical Overstress/Electrostatic Discharge Symposium Proceedings, Dallas, Texas, Sept. 16-18, 1992, pp. 2.2.1-2.2.8.

[1388] Smith, Douglas C., "The Elusive Glitch - Part 3: Measurement of Impulsive Fields," Dec. 2001.

[1389] Smith, Douglas C., and Hogsett, Mark, "The EMI/ESD Environment of Large Server Installations," Electrical Overstress/Electrostatic Discharge Symposium Proceedings, Portland, Oregon, Sept. 9-13, 2001, pp. 385-389. (download from http://emcesd.com/pdf/eos01-w.pdf)

[1390] Smith, Douglas C., and Hogsett, Mark, "The EMI/ESD Environment of Large Server Installations," Conformity, vol. 6 no. 10, pp. 38-46, Oct. 2001.

[1391] Smith, Douglas C., "Transient Suppression Plane."

[1392] Smith, Douglas C., "Unusual Forms of ESD," 1997-2000. (download from http://www.emcesd.com/talks/uesd-a.pdf)

[1393] Smith, Douglas C., "Unusual Forms of ESD and Their Effects," Electrical Overstress/Electrostatic Discharge Symposium Proceedings, Orlando, FL, Sept. 28-30, 1999, pp. 329-333. (download from http://www.emcesd.com/pdf/uesd99-w.pdf)

[1394] Smith, Douglas C., "Using High Frequency Current Measurements to Find Secondary ESD in Equipment," .

[1395] Smith, Douglas C., "Using High Frequency Measurement of ESD Current to Find Problems with an ESD Simulator," Mar. 2011.

[1396] Smith, Douglas C., "Variability of Air Discharge ESD Current Waveforms (Using high frequency measurements to explain one of many reasons why ESD testing seems to be unrepeatable)," Apr. 2011.

[1397] Smith, Douglas C., "Wi-Fi (Wireless LAN) Antenna Response to EMI from Small Metal ESD," Aug. 2004.

[1398] Smith, Doug, "You Can Troubleshoot EFT Problems," Test & Measurement World, vol. 16 no. 11, pp. 43-46, Nov. 1996. (download from http://tmworld.com/articles/art6_emc_119643.htm)

[1399] Smith, Matt, "EMC, CE Mark, IEC801.....What's it all about?," Analog Dialog, vol. 30 no. 4, pp. 6-8, 1996. (download from http://www.analog.com/publications/magazines/Dialogue/archives/30-4/EMC_CE.htm l)

[1400] Smith, Michael J., "Developing ESD-Immune Electronic Systems," EOS/ESD Technology, Jan./Feb. 1993, pp. 18-20.

[1401] Smooha, Yehuda, and Lin, Dong, "A Comparison of ESD Failure Thresholds of CMOS I/O Buffers Using Real Human Body and Human Body Model Simulators," Electrical Overstress/Electrostatic Discharge Symposium Proceedings, Lake Buena Vista, FL, Sept. 11-13, 1990, pp. 114-118.

[1402] Snyder, Harlan C., "A Comprehensive ESD Control Program for a Large Disk File", Electrical Overstress/Electrostatic Discharge Symposium Proceedings, Anaheim, CA, ?, 1988, pp. 26-32.

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TTTTTT

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[1458d] Taka, Yoshinori, Kawamata. Ken, and Fujiwara, Osamu, "Dependence of Grounded Metal-Plate's Approach Speed on Spark Length for Air Discharges of Electrostatic Discharge Generator," 2015 Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Taipei, Taiwan, May 26-29, 2015, pp. 608-611.

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[1460h] Takada, Tsuyoshi, Sekine, Tadatoshi, and Asai, Hideki, "Hybrid Simulation of ESD Events by SPICE-Like and Finite-Difference Time-Domain Methods," 2013 IEEE Electrical Design of Advanced Packaging and Systems Symposium, Nara, Japan, Dec. 12-15, 2013, pp. 197-200.

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[1461c] Talebzadeh, Atieh, Gan, Yingjie, Kim, Ki-Hyuk, Zhang, Yiqiang, and Pommerenke, David, "Spark-less Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) on Display Screens," 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility and EMC Europe , Dresden, Germany, Aug. 16-22, 2015, pp. 1284-1289.

[1461d] Tamminen, Pasi, and Viheriakoski, Toni, "Charged Cable-System ESD Event," 2016 38th Electrical Overstress/Electrostatic Discharge Symposium, Garden Grove, CA, Sept. 11-16, 2016, pp. xx-xx.

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XXXXXX

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YYYYYY

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ZZZZZZ

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dBi Corporation was a one-man test house (testing laboratory) based in Lexington, Kentucky, testing a wide variety of commercial electronic products for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), electromagnetic interference (EMI), and electrostatic discharge (ESD) under its ISO 17025 accreditation. dBi was founded in Winchester, Kentucky in 1995 by Donald R. Bush, shortly after he retired from 30 years service with IBM Lexington's/ Lexmark's EMC Lab. John R. Barnes, who'd worked with Don at IBM Lexington and Lexmark, bought dBi in 2002 after Don's death, and moved the company to Lexington, Kentucky. John closed dBi at 11:59pm EDT on September 30, 2013, because ObamaCrap had increased operating expenses to the point that we could no longer afford to remain in business.

We'd like to thank all of the clients who chose dBi to test their products from 1995 to 2013. Below is a brief summary of our accomplishments during the 18 years we were in business.

From 1995 to 2001, under Don Bush's ownership and operation, dBi:

From 2002 to 2013, under John Barnes' ownership and operation, dBi:

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Last revised September 2, 2017.